Biology class 10thClass Matric Part 2 Notes

10th class biology chapter 18 Pharmacology

10th class biology chapter 18 Pharmacology on by Bilal Article

Shorts and Simple Question & Answers

Q.1 Define pharmacology and distinguish it from pharmacy?
It is the study of drug composition, properties and medical applications. Sources of drugs are also studied in pharmacology.
While pharmacy is the study of preparation of medicines and drugs. Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy.

Q.2 Differentiate between medicinal drug and addictive drug.
Medicinal drug
It is defined as any chemical substance used in the diagnosis, cure, treatment or prevention of diseases.
Addictive drug
Some drugs often make person dependent on them or addicted. The person’s body becomes familiar to it and user cannot function well without it, these are called addictive drugs.

Q.3 Differentiate between analgesic and antibiotic?
Analgesic (pain killers) reduces pains e.g. paracetamol etc.
Antibiotic are chemicals which inhibits or kills bacteria and treat bacterial infection e.g.
tetracycline etc.

Q.4 What is marijuana? To which category of addictive drugs it belongs?
Marijuana is a hallucinogen which is smoked. It is obtained from flowers, stems, leaves of the
marijuana plant. It belongs to the category of hallucinogens which result in a feeling of well being
that lasts two to three hours.

Q.5 Differentiate between narcotics and hallucinogens?
Narcotics are strong painkillers. These drugs are often prescribed in conjunction with other less potent painkillers. These are used to relieve pain, but some people may abuse narcotics for ecstatic effects.
Hallucinogens are the drugs that cause changes in perception, thought, emotion and consciousness.

Q.6. What is Aspirin?
A pain killer medicine, synthesized in Laboratory having the composition as Acetaminophen.

Q.7 What do you know about bactericidal and bacteriostatic?
The antibiotics that they kill bacteria e.g. cephalosporins are called bactericidal.
The antibiotics that they work by stopping bacterial growth e.g. sulphonamides.

Q.8 What is cardiotonic?
Medicines for giving strength to heart muscles is called cardiotonics.

Q.9 Define the term cephalosporin?
A group of antibiotics, interfere with synthesis of bacterial cell wall and so are bactericidal. It is used to treat pneumonia, sorethroat, tonsillitis, bronchitis etc.

Q.10 What is heroin?
A commonly abused narcotic, derived from morphine, affects the central nervous system and causes drowsiness, hypertension etc.

Q.11 What is Morphine?
A commonly used narcotic, derived from the juice of opium, acts directly on the CNS to relieve pain, has a high potential for addiction.

Q.12 What are sedatives?
The types of drugs that interact with the central nervous system to depress its activities, make a person calm or drowsy e.g. diazepam.

Q.13 What do you know about sulfonamide and tetracycline?
Sulpha drugs are synthetic anti-biotics that contain sulfonamide group. They are broad spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics. They inhibit the folic acid synthesis in bacteria and used to treat pneumonia and urinary tract infections.
Broad spectrum bacteriostatic inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. It is used in the treatment of infections of respiratory tract, urinary tract, intestine etc.

Q.14 What is vaccine?
. The material used to produce immunity to a disease by stimulating the production of antibodies.

Q.15 Define the term disinfactants?
Disinfactants destroy microorganism found on non-living objects.

Q.16 What is tincture of iodine?
The mineral iodine is used in making tincture of iodine, a liquid that helps to prevent infection when applied to cuts and bruises.

Q.17 Make a difference between broad spectrum and narrow spectrum antibiotics?
Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
Some antibiotics can be used to treat a wide range of infections and are known as broad spectrum
Narrow Spectrum Antibiotics
Antibiotics used against a few types of bacteria are called narrow spectrum antibiotics.

Q.18 What is role of antibodies?
When pathogens enter the body (blood) of host, these proteins stimulate an immune response
in host i.e. synthesis of “antibodies”. Antibodies bind to pathogens and destroy them. In addition, “memory cells” are produced, which remain in blood and provide protection against future infections with the same pathogens.

Q.19 Define antibiotics.
An antibiotics is a drug that kills or retards the growth (reproduction) of bacteria. They are the chemicals produced by or derived from microorganisms (bacteria and fungi).

Q.20 Name two drugs obtained from animals.
Fish liver oils, musk, bee’s wax, certain hormones and antitoxins are obtained from animal sources.

Q.21. What are the functions of antibiotics?
OR Define drug. Name one synthetic drug.
Antibiotics are used to treat many different bacterial infections. Some antibiotics are bactericidal meaning that they kill bacteria. Others are ‘bacteriostatic meaning that they work by stopping bacterial growth.

Q.22. What is meant by drug?” Give one example.
Any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism, alters normal body function is known as a drug e.g. Aspirin, is an example of synthetic drug.

Q.23. Write the name of two drugs which are obtained from minerals.
(i) Tincture of Iodine
(ii) Silver Nitrate

Q.24. Which antibiotic is obtained from soil?
. Terramycine is obtained from the soil which is used to treat many infections.

Q.25. Differentiate between antiseptic and antibiotics.
Antiseptic reduces the possibility of infection on skin while antibiotics inhibit or kill bacteria within or on the body.

Q.26. Write the contributions of Sir Alexander Fleming in the field of pharmacology.
Sir Alexander Fleming discovered the antibiotic penicillin from the füngus Penicillium notatum for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945.

Q.27. Write the important contributions of Joseph Lister in the field of surgery.
Joseph Lister was an English surgeon. He promoted the idea of sterile surgery for the first time. He introduced carbolic acid to sterilize surgical instruments and to clean wounds.

Q:28 Is vaccines provide life time immunity?
Some vaccines do not provide life time immunity. For example Tetanus vaccines are only effective for a limited period of time. In such cases, booster shots are necessary to maintain.
continuous protection.

Q.29 Write two functions of B.Lymphocytes.
B.Lymphocytes recognize the weakened or dead pathogens as enemies and start producing antibodies against them. These antibodies remain in blood and provide protection against pathogens. If real pathogens enter blood, the already present antibodies kill them.

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1.Antibiotics are used for the;
(a) Treatment of viral infections
(b) Treatment of bacterial infections✅
(c) Immunization against infections
(d) Both a and b

2.The substances used for the treatment, cure, prevention or diagnosis of disease are called;
(a) Medicinal drugs✅
(b) Narcotics
(c) Hallucinogens
(d) Sedatives

3.Aspirin is categorized as:
(a) A drug from animals
(b) A synthetic drug✅
(c) A drug from plants
(d) A drug from minerals

4.The drugs used to reduce pain are known as;
(a) Analgesics✅
(b) Antiseptics
(c) Antibiotics
(d) Sedatives

5.Which of the following drugs is obtained from plants?
(a) Aspirin
(b) Opium✅
(c) Cephalosporin
(d) Insulin

6.Which of these addictive drugs are also used as painkillers?
(a) Narcotics✅
(b) Sedatives
(c) Hallucinogens
(d) All can be used

7.Sulfonamides affect bacteria in the following way:
(a) Break the cell wall
(b) Inhibit protein synthesis
(c) Stop the synthesis of new cell wall
(d) Stop the synthesis of folic acid✅

8.What is true about vaccines?
(a) Protect against the future viral and bacterial infections
(b) Treat the existing bacterial infections only
(c) Treat existing infections and also protect against future infections✅
(d) Protect against viral infections only

9.Until 1890, the subject pharmacology was known as:
(a) Clinical pharmacology
(b) Materia Medica✅
(c) Pharmacy
(d) All of these

10.A cardiotonic digitalis is obtained from a plant:
(a) Poppy
(b) Fungi
(c) Cannabis
(d) Foxglove✅

11.The role of antiseptics is:
(a) Destroy microorganisms
(b) Kill bacteria
(c) Inhibit bacteria
(d) Reduce possibility of infections✅

12.Who introduced the idea of sterile surgery for first time?
(a) Alexander Fleming
(b) Joseph Lister✅
(c) Pasteur
(d) Aristotle

13.When Sir Alexander Fleming was awarded Nobel prize on the discovery of penicillin?
(a) 1881
(b) 1955
(c) 1945✅
(d) 1912

14.Expired drugs can cause damage to:
(a) Heart
(b) Brain
(c) Kidneys✅
(d) Stomach

15.The most prescribed medications in modern medicine are:
(a) Antibiotics✅
(b) Sedatives
(c) Cardiotonics
(d) Hallucinogens

16.A medicine for lowering blood pressure, which has sulfonamide group is:
(a) Aspirin
(b) Penicillin
(c) Thiazide diuretics✅
(d) Teramycine

17.Edward Jenner introduced the world’s first:
(a) Vaccination✅
(b) Antigen
(c) Antibiotics
(d) Addictive drugs

18.In case of tetanus vaccination which is for limited time, are used for continuous protection.
(a) B-Lymphocytes
(b) Booster shots✅
(c) Antibiotics
(d) None of these

19.The methods of administering vaccines is/are;
(a) Injection
(b) Mouth
(c) Nasal spray
(d) All of these✅

20.When the antibiotics are not effective against viral infections, then it is called;

(a) Efficiency
(b) Efficacy✅
(c) Inefficiency
(d) resistance

21.The medicine reduces the pain;
(a) Aspirin✅
(b) Quinine
(c) Chloroquine
(d) Resochin

22.This drug belongs to Hallucinogens;
(a) Morphine
(b) Codeine
(c) Heroin
(d) Mescaline✅

23.Cardiotonic is used to stimulate the heart, it is made from the leaves of purple flowered plant called:
(a) Rose
(b) Jasmine
(c) Hibiscus
(d) Foxglove✅

24.The powder form of is applied on wounds to stop bleeding and prevent infection:
(a) Ammonium nitrate
(b) Silver nitrate✅
(c) Sodium phosphate
(d) Sulphur

25.Diazepam is included in:
(a) Analgesics
(b) Antibiotics
(c) Sedatives✅
(d) Vaccines

26.Long term use of suicidal thoughts: drug induced
(a) Analgesics
(b) Vaccines
(c) Antibiotics
(d) Sedatives✅

27.Mescaline comes from:
(a) Mushroom
(b) Poppy plant
(c) Cactus✅
(d) Sunflower

28.The scientific name of marijuana plant is:
(a) Rosa Indica
(b) Brassica campestris
(c) Putrenzeva
(d) Cannabis sativa✅ not used in children under the age of 8 and during the period of tooth development:
(a) Cephalosporins
(b) Tetracyclines✅
(c) Sulpha Drugs
(d)Thiazide Diuretics

30.In which year a British physician Edward Jenner infected a young boy with cowpox by injecting pus cells:
(a) 1786
(b) 1696
(c) 1756
(d) 1796✅

31.Drugs obtained from animals are usually their products.

(a) Catabolic
(b) Anabolic
(c) Waste
(d) Glandular✅

32.recognize the weakened or dead pathogens as enemies and start producing antibodies against them.
(a) Antigens
(b) Lymphocytes✅
(c) Vaccines
(d) None

33.destroy microorganisms found on non-living objects.
(a) Sedatives
(b) Antibiotics
(c) Disinfectants✅
(d) Antiseptics

34.Pathogens contain special proteins called:
(a) Lymphocytes
(b) Antigens✅
(c) Antibiotics
(d) Antibodies

35.Which of following is/are broad spectrum antibiotics?
(a) Tetracyclines
(b) Sulfonamides
(c) Cephalosporins
(d) Tetracyclines and Sulfonamides✅

36.Which of following drug is derived from a mushroom?
(a) Marijuana
(b) Mescaline
(c) Morphine
(d) Psilocin✅

37.Antibiotics are derived from microorganisms:
(a) Bacteria
(b) Fungi
(c) Bacteria and Fungi✅
(d) Viruses

38.Bacteriostatics are antibiotics:

(a) Kill bacteria
(b) Stop bacterial growth✅
(c) Enhance bacterial growth
(d) Lessen bacterial growth

39.Which of following is not an antibiotic?
(a) Penicillin
(b) Tetracycline
(c) Thiazide diuretics✅
(d) Sulfa drugs

40.Penicillin is derived from fungus
(a) Penicillium candidum
(b) Penicillium expansum
(c) Penicillium notatum✅
(d) Penicillium chrysogenum

41.Example of non-prescription drug is:
(a) Aspirin✅
(b) Antibiotics
(c) Barbiturates
(d) Tranquillizers

42.Which of following is/are an example of prescription drug:
(a) Barbiturates and Aspirin
(b) Tranquillizers✅
(c) Aspirin
(d) Barbiturates and Tranquillizers

43.Which of following is an example of synthetic drug?
(a) Digitalis
(b) Penicillin
(c) Aspirin✅
(d) Streptomycin

44.Which of following affects production of sperms in men?
(a) Codeine
(b) Morphine
(c) Marijuana✅
(d) Mescaline

45.Paracetamol is a/an:
(a) Analgesics✅
(b) Antibiotics
(c) Sedatives
(d) Vaccines

46.Small doses of result in feeling of well-being that lasts two to three hours.
(a) Mescaline
(b) Marijuana✅
(c) Heroin
(d) Morphine

47.Which of following are used to relieve pain for patients with chronic diseases such as cancer.
(a) Sedatives
(b) Narcotics✅
(c) Hallucinogens
(d) Mescaline

48.Antibiotics used to treat a few types of bacteria are called antibiotics.
(a) Broad Spectrum
(b) Narrow Spectrum✅
(c) Large Range spectrum
(d) Narrow and Broad Spectrum

49.Sir Alexander Fleming is biologist.
(a) Italian
(b) English✅
(c) Scottish
(d) Swedish

50.Early Pharmacologist focused on:
(a) Synthetic chemical extract
(b) Microbial Extracts
(c) Plant Extracts✅
(d) Animal Extracts

51.Which cells in body provide protection against future infections?
(a) Red Blood cells
(b) Thrombocytes
(c) Memory cells✅
(d) Platelets

52.Drugs which make a person dependent on them are:
(a) Antibiotics
(b) Addictive✅
(c) Clinical
(d) Non prescription

53.Aspirin is a a/an;
(a) Prescription
(b) Non prescription
(c) Synthetic drug
(d) Synthetic & Non-Prescription drug✅

54.Medicines which are used to stimulate heart rate are called:
(a) Antibiotics
(b) Cardiotonics✅
(c) Analgesics
(d) Pain killer

55.A Cardiotonic is:
(a) Penicillin
(b) Aspirin
(c) Digitalis✅
(d) Opium

56.Penicillin is obtained from:
(a) Plants
(c) Animals
(b) Fungus✅
(d) Bacteria

57.From the leaves of foxglove, which is obtained?
(a) Opium
(b) Tincture of iodine
(c) Antitoxin
(d) Digitalis✅

58.The example of a pain reliever is;
(a) Silver nitrate
(b) Morphine✅
(c) Marijuana
(d) Mescaline

59.An example of illegal addictive drug is:
(a) Marijuana✅
(b) Penicillin
(c) Digitalis
(d) Foxglove

60.Drugs which animals are: are obtained from
(a) Musk and Bees wax✅
(b) Musk
(c) Bees wax
(d) Mush and tincture of Iodine

61.Hallucinogen which is smoked is;
(a) Datura
(b) Marijuana✅
(c) Psilocin
(d) Mescaline

62.Which inhibit or kill bacteria?
(a) Aspirin
(b) Tetracycline✅
(c) Diazepam
(d) Paracetamol

63.Who discovered penicillin?
(a) Fleming✅
(b) Lister
(c) Jenner
(d) Louis Pasteur

64.Which are aroused for ecstatic effects?
(a) Sedatives
(b) Hallucinogens
(c) Narcotics✅
(d) Marijuana

65.Most commonly abused Narcotic is:
(a) Morphine
(b) Codeine
(c) Caffeine
(d) Heroin✅

66.Which is derived from Cactus?
(a) Psilocin
(b) Diazepam
(c) Mescaline✅
(d) Morphine

67.What affects sympathetic Nervous system?
(a) Sedative
(b) Hallucinogens✅
(c) Narcotics
(d) Analgesics

68.High doses of increases heart rate?
(a) Marijuana
(b) Hashish
(c) Marijuana & Hashish✅
(d) Morphine

69.Which interfere with synthesis of bacterial cell wall?
(a) Cephalosporins✅
(b) Tetracyclines
(c) Tetracyclines & Cephalosporins
(d) Sulfonamide

70.Which should not be used during period of tooth development?
(a) Cephalosporins
(b) Sulfonamides
(c) Tetracyclines✅
(d) Hallucinogens

71.A medicine for lowering blood pressure is:
(a) Cephalosporins
(b) Sulpha drugs
(c) Tetracyclines
(d) Thiazide diuretics✅

72.Who introduced Carbolic Acid?

(a) Sir Alexander Fleming
(b) Louis Pasteur
(c) Joseph Lister✅
(d) Edward Jenner

73.The example of Sedative is:
(a) Aspirin
(b) Diazepam✅
(c) Carbolic acid
(d) Tetracycline

74.The drugs that causes changes in perception, thought, emotion and consciousness are:
(a) Narcotics
(b) Sedatives
(c) Hallucinogens✅
(d) Morphine

75.Morphine and Codeine are derived from:
(a) Poppy✅
(b) Foxglove
(c) Sheesham
(d) All of these

76.Which one is prescribed as a strange Analgesic under the diamorphine in many Western countries:
(a) Paracetamol
(b) Aspirin
(c) Heroin✅
(d) Marijuana

77.To which granp aspirin belong;
(a) Obtained from animals
(b) Obtained from plants
(c) Synthetic✅
(d) Obtained from bacteria

78.Which of the following addictive drugs is obtained from opium?
(a) Morphine✅
(b) Marijuana
(c) Mescaline
(d) Psilocin

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