Biology class 10thClass Matric Part 2 Notes

10th class biology chapter 17 Biotechnology

10th class biology chapter 17 Biotechnology on Newsongoogle.com by Bilal Article

Shorts and Simple Question & Answers

Q.1 How would you define fermentation with reference to biotechnology?
Ans:
Fermentation is the process in which there is incomplete oxidation reduction of glucose.


Q.2 Name any two industrial products made by fermentation? Also describe their uses in the industry.
Ans:
Two industrial products are:
(i) Formic acid
It is used in textile dyeing, leather treatment, electroplating, rubber manufacture.
(ii) Ethanol
It is used as solvent and used in the production of vinegar and beverages.


Q.3 What are the products of the two types of carbohydrate fermentation?
Ans:
In alcoholic fermentation, CO2 and ethanol are the products. In lactic acid fermentation, lactic acid is the product.


Q.4 Give an example how biotechnology is helping for better environment?
Ans:
Bacterial enzymes are used to treat sewage water to purify.


Q.5 In biotechnology, what is meant by genetically modified organism (GMO)? How is it made?
Ans:
In biotechnology, recombinant DNA is transferred to the target host. In this way, host organism is transformed into a genetically modified organism (GMO).


Q.6 What is Batch fermentation?
Ans:
In this process, the tank of fermenter is filled with the raw materials to be fermented. The temperature and pH for microbial fermentation is properly adjusted and nutritive supplements are added. All the material is steam sterilized. The pure culture of microorganisms is added to fermenter from a separate vessel.


Q.7 Define Biotechnology. (Board 2014)
Ans:
It is defined as the use of living organisms in processes for the manufacture of useful products or for services.


Q.8 What is continuous fermentation?
Ans:
In this process, the substrate is added to fermenter continuously at a fixed rate. This maintains the micro-organisms in growth phase. Fermentation products are taken continually.


Q.9 Define Fermentation.
Ans:
It is a process in which incomplete oxidation reduction of glucose takes place.


Q.10 What is Fermenter?
Ans:
Fermenter is a device that provides optimum environment to microorganisms to grow into a biomass, so that they can interact with a substrate forming the product. Fermentation is carried out in fermenters.


Q.11 What is Genetically modified organism GMO?
Ans:
GMO is genetically modified organism. Recombinat DNA is transferred to the target host. In this way the host organism is transformed into genetically modified organism (GMO).


Q.12 What is Recombinant DNA?
Ans:
The vector DNA and the attached gene of interest are collectively called recombinant DNA.


Q.13 What is Restriction endonucleases?
Ans:
Special enzymes, called restriction endonucleases are used to cut the identified gene from the total DNA of donor organism.


Q.14 What is Single cell protein?
Ans:
Single cell protein (SCP) refers to the protein content extracted from pure or mixed culture of algae, yeasts, fungi or bacteria.


Q.15 What is Transgenic organism?
Ans:
Organism with modified genetic set up is known as transgenic organism.


Q.16 Define vector?
Ans:
A vector is a carrier or transmitter which is selected for transfer of the isolated gene of interest to the host cell. The vector may be a plasmid or a bacteriophage.


Q.17 What is Genetic donor?
Ans:
The organism from which the gene of interest is taken during the process of genetic engineering is called genetic donor.


Q.18 Define Plasmid.
Ans:
The extra chromosomal DNA present in many bacteria is called plasmid.


Q.19 What is Alcoholic fermentation?
Ans:
This fermentation is carried out by many types of yeast such as saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this process, carbondioxide is removed from pyruvic acid. The product acetaldehyde is then reduced to ethanol. The CO2 production causes the rise of the bread. It is used to produce bread, beer, wine and distilled spirits.


Q.20 What is Lactic acid fermentation?
Ans:
In this process, pyruvic acid is reduced to lactic acid. It is carried out by many bacteria. e.g. Streptococcus and many Lactobacillus species. It is quite important in dairy industry where it is used for souring milk and also for production of various types of cheese.


Q.21 What is Beta-Endorphin?
Ans:
It is a pain killer produced by the brain, has also been produced by genetic engineering techniques.


Q.22 What is thymosin?
Ans:
It is a hormone which is effective against brain and lung cancer.


Q.23 What is ligase?
Ans:
Ligase is an enzyme which is used to join the DNA.


Q.24 Write any two objectives of genetic engineering?
Ans.
Production of particular RNA and Protein molecules.
ii. Treatment of genetic defects in higher organisms.


Q.25 Define genetic engineering
Ans:
Genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology involves the artificial synthesis, modification, removal, addition and repair of the genetic material DNA.


Q.26 Define Dolly
Ans:
In Scotland in 1997, an embryologist Ian Wilmut produced a sheep named Dolly from the body cell of an aduît sheep.


Q.27 What are interferons?
Ans:
Interferons are anti-viral protein produced by cells infected with viruses.


Q.28 What is urokinase?
Ans:
Urokinase is an enzyme which is used to dissolve blood clots, has been produced by genetically modified microorganisms.


Q.29 What is Human Genome Project?
Ans:
Human Genome Project was launched to map all the genome in human cell. The complete map of human genome was published in 2002.


Q.30 What is meant by single cell protein? How are these produced?
Ans:
Definition:
Single-cell protein (SCP) refers to the protein content extracted from pure or mixed cultures of algae, yeasts, fungi or bacteria.
Production of single Cell Protein
For the production of single cell proteins, the microorganisms utilize a variety of substrates like agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, natural gas like methane etc.


Q.31 What is meant by Recombinant DNA Technology? Give its one benefit.
Ans:
A technology in which a vector is selected for the transfer of the isolated gene of interest to the host cell. The vector may be a plasmid or a bacteriophage. The gene of interest is attached with the vector DNA by using endonuclease and ligase. The vector DNA and the attached gene of interest are collectively called recombinant DNA. This recombinant DNA is transferred to target host and host organism is transformed into a genetically modified organisms (GMO).


Q.32 Name two basic types of Fermentation.
Ans:
1. Alcoholic fermentation (by yeast)
2. Lactic acid fermentation (by bacteria)

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MCQs

1.Find the correct match for the fermentation product and the organism involved;
(a) Formic acid – Saccharomyces
(b) Ethanol-Saccharomyces✅
(c) Ethanol-Aspergillus
(d) Glycerol – Aspergillus


2.Which is not an objective of genetic engineering?
(a) Production of cheese and yogurt by lactic acid bacteria✅
(b) Isolation of a particular gene, or part of a gene
(c) Production of RNA and protein molecules.
(d) Correction of genetic defects in higher organisms


3.Which of these is an anti-viral protein?
(a) Urokinase
(b) Thymosin
(c) Insulin
(d) Interferon✅


4.The first step in genetic engineering is:
(a) Growth of the genetically modified organism
(b) Transfer of the recombinant DNA into the host organism
(c) Isolation of the gene of interest✅
(d) Insertion of gene into a vector


5.The work on genetic engineering started in:
(a) 1944✅
(b) 1955
(c) 1945
(d) 1943


6.Scientists are able to cut and paste the DNA of organism in:
(a) 1944
(b) 1970✅
(c) 1990
(d) 2002


7.Scientists prepared human insulin by inserting the insulin gene in bacteria in:
(a) 1970
(b) 1978✅
(c) 1990
(d) 2002


8.Human genome: project was launched in:
(a) 1990✅
(b) 1970
(c) 1978
(d) 2002


9.In alcoholic fermentation, which bacteria is used?
(a) Saccharomyces✅
(b) Lactobacillus
(c) Streptococcus
(d) Both B and C


10.Which of these micro-organism is used in the production of formic acid?
(a) Aspergillus✅
(b) Bacillus
(c) Saccharomyces
(d) None


11.Glycerol is produced by:
(a) Aspergillus
(b) Bacillus
(c) Saccharomyces✅
(d) Streptococcus


12.Which one is used to dissolve blood clots?
(a) Urokinase✅
(b) Interferons
(c) Thymosin
(d) Vaccine


13.The complete map of human genome was published in:
(a) 2002✅
(b) 1944
(c) 1978
(d) 1990


14.50 kilogram of yeast produces how many tons of proteins within 24 hours.
(a) 250✅
(b) 150
(c) 350
(d) 450


15.Interferon was produced by genetically modified microorganisms in;
(a) 1980✅
(b) 1944
(c) 1990
(d) 1970


16.500,000 sheep brains were required to produce how much milligrams of human growth hormone?
(a) 5✅
(b) 10
(c) 15
(d) 20


17.Which one is effective against brain and lung cancer?
(a) Beta-endorphin
(b) Vaccine
(c) Thymosin.✅
(d) Insulin


18.Which one is not used for the production of plastics?
(a) Bacillus
(b) Aspergillus✅
(c) Saccharomyces
(d) none of these


19.Alcoholic fermentation is carried out by; (Board 2013)
(a) Yeast✅
(b) Bacteria
(c) Virus
(d) Algae


20.Enzyme used to cut the identified gene from the total DNA of donor organism is; (Board 2013)
(a) Endonuclease
(b) Ligase
(c) Restriction Endonuclease✅
(d) Amylase


21.Vector transmits;
(a) Bacterium
(b) Parasite
(c) Pathogen
(d) Both B and C✅


22.Which is an important application of Biotechnology?
(a) Respiration
(b) Decomposition
(c) Digestion
(d) Fermentation


23.In glycolysis, glucose molecule is broken down into two molecules of:
(a) Pyruvic acid✅
(b) Lactic acid
(c) Formic acid
(d) Acrylic acid


24.Who produced the Dolly sheep?
(a) Louis Pasteur
(b) Walther Flemming
(c) Ian Wilmut✅
(d) Mendel


25.Who invented Pasteurization?
(a) Louis pasteur✅
(b) Walther Flemming
(c) Carolus Linnaeus
(d) Aristotle


26.Who introduced the term “single cell Protein”?
(a) Mendel
(b) Loius Pasteur
(c) Scrimshow✅
(d) Ian Wilmut


27.The use of living organisms in processes for the manufactures of useful products for services is called:
(a) Genetic Engineering
(b) Biotechnology✅
(c) Vaccination
(d) Maltation


28.Streptococcus and Lactobacillus are:
(a) Viruses
(b) Fungi
(c) Bacteria✅
(d) Algae


29.When Pasteur convinced the scientific community that all fermentations are the results of microbial activity?
(a) 1957
(b) 1857✅
(c) 1900
(d) 2010


30.Which one is the commonest type of fermented cereal product?
(a) Pickles
(b) Bread✅
(c) Jams
(d) Powdered milk


31.In the synthesis of bear, fermentation of fine powder of cereal grains is done by?
(a) Yeast✅
(b) Bacteria
(c) Viruses
(d) All of the above


32.Which one is used in the production of Vinegar and Beverages?
(a) Aspergillus
(b) Bacillus
(c) Saccharomyces✅
(d) Lactobacillus


33.The vector DNA and the attached gene of interest are collectively called:
(a) GMO
(b) Recombinant DNA✅
(c) DNA
(d) Endonucleases


34.Wheat dough is fermented by:
(a) Yeast
(b) S.cerevisiae✅
(c) Lactobacillus
(d) Streptococcus


35.Organisms with modified genetic set up are called:
(a) Dolly
(b) Transgenic organisms✅
(c) Breed
(d) Vector


36.The process in which glucose molecule is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid is called:
(a) Fermentation
(b) Genetic Engineering
(c) Glycolysis✅
(d) Biotechnology


37.Which one is used as a Sweetener?
(a) Formic acid
(b) Ethanol
(c) Glycerol✅
(d) All of these


38.DNA carries genetic information, it was proved in?
(a) 1970’s
(b) 1944✅
(c) 1978
(d) 2000


39.When was DNA prepared outside the cells?
(a) 1944✅
(b) 1953
(c) 1970’s
(d) 1990


40.Scientists were able to cut and paste the DNA of organisms in;
(a) 1953
(b) 1970’s✅
(c) 1944
(d) 1990


41.Human Genome project was
(a) 1970
(b) 1990✅
(c) 1991
(d) 2000


42.Complete human genome map was published in?
(a) 1976
(b) 2004
(c) 2002✅
(d) 2012


43.Malted food is/are;
(a) Powdered milk
(b) Mixture of barely
(c) Whole milk
(d) All of these✅


44.Fermented food is/are;
(a) Pickles
(b) Yogurt
(c) Both A and B✅
(d) Wheat flour


45.Which is used for souring milk and for production of various types of cheese?
(a) Lactobacillus
(b) Streptococcus
(c) Both lactobacillus and streptococcus✅
(d) Saccharomyces


46.Fermentation makes the food more?
(a) More Digestible✅
(b) Less Nutritious
(c) Tasteless
(d) Less digestible


47.Grapes can directly be fermented by yeasts to:
(a) Formic acid
(b) Wine✅
(c) Pyruvic acid
(d) Ethanol


48.Which product electroplating? is used in
(a) Formic acid✅
(b) Ethanol
(c) Glycerol
(d) Acrylic acid


49.Which maintains the microorganisms in growth phase?
(a) Fermenter
(b) Continuous fermenter✅
(c) Batch fermenter
(d) All of these


50.A joining enzyme is;
(a) Thymosin
(b) Endonuclease
(c) Ligase✅
(d) Urokinase


51.A breaking enzyme is;
(a) Recombinant DNA
(b) Ligase
(c) Urokinase
(d) Endonuclease✅


52.SCP has good prospects for future because it contains all important;
(a) Nutrients
(b) Amino acids✅
(c) Lipids
(d) Fats


53.It is a catabolic process:
(a) Photosynthesis
(b) Fermentation✅
(c) Fragmentation.
(d) None of these


54.To preserve fruits, vegetables and pickles we add;
(a) Water and yogurt
(b) Salt and acid✅
(c) Flour and salt
(d) Onion and garlic


55.An enzyme produced by genetically modified organisms used to break up blood clots is called;
(a) Lipase
(b) Amylase
(c) Urokinase✅
(d) Peptidase

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