Biology class 9thClass Matric Part 1 Notes

UNIT 1 Matric Part 1 Class 9TH BIOLOGY

Matric Part 1 Class 9TH BIOLOGY Unit 1 Introduction To Biology Short And Simple Questions And Answers

These 9th-class biology notes are prepared according to the syllabus of all Punjab Boards. Other boards other than Punjab do not follow class 9 biology notes. These Punjab boards are Gujranwala Board, Lahore Board, Faisalabad Board, Multan Board, Rawalpindi Board, Bahawalpur Board Sargodha Board, DG Khan Board, Sahiwal Board.

Questions And Answers

Q1: What is Science?

Ans: “Science is the study in which observations are made, experiments are done and logical conclusions are drawn in order to understand principles of nature.”

Q2: Why was the scientific information not classified into different branches?

Ans: In ancient times, the scientific information was not classified into different branches, as it exists today. All the scientific information was included under one head i.e. ‘science’.
Reason:
With the passage of time scientific information increased many folds and this enormous scientific knowledge was then classified into different branches like:
Biology
Physics
Chemistry
Mathematics

Q3: What are the thoughts of Dr. Abdus Salam about science?

Ans: According to Dr. Abdus Salam, “Scientific Knowledge is common heritage of mankind.”

Q4: Define Biology and write also its meaning and derivation?

Ans: The word “biology” has been derived from two Greek words.’bios’ meaning ‘life’
logos’ meaning thought or reasoning’
“The scientific study of life is called Biology.”

Q5: What is the benefit of the study of living things?

Ans: To understand and appreciate nature, it is essential to study the structures, functions and related aspects of living organisms. The study of living organisms provides information and remedies to human problems regarding:
Health
Food
Environment

6. What is difference between Zoology and Botany?

Ans: Zoology:
This division of biology deals with the study of animals.
Botany:
This division of biology deals with the study of plants.

Q7: How would you differentiate between Morphology and Anatomy?

Ans: MORPHOLOGY
ANATOMY
Morphology deals with the study of form structures of living organism.
Anatomy deals with study of internal structure of living organisms.
It includes study of physical features such
It includes study of cellular and tissue
size, shape, color of biological structures
composition of biological structures

Q8: Define Molecular biology?

Ans: “Molecular biology deals with the study of the molecules of life.” It is also known as biochemistry.
Example:
Water
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic acids

Q9: Define Morphology?

Ans: Definition: This branch deals with the study of form and structures of living organisms.”

Q10: What is difference between genetics and inheritance?

Ans: The study of genes and their role in inheritance is called genetics whereas transmission of characters from one generation to another is called inheritance.

Q11: What is cell biology?

Ans: “The study of the structures and functions of cells and cell organelles is called cell biology.” This branch also deals with the study of cell division.

Q12: Define embryology?

Ans: Definition:
“It is the study of the development of an embryo to new individual.”

Q13: What are fossils?

Ans: Fossils are the remains of extinct organisms.
Examples:
Coal

Q14: What are Parasites? Give examples.

Ans: “The organisms that take food and shelter from living hosts and, in return, harm them are called parasites.”
Examples:
Viruses
Pathogenic Bacteria
Lices

Q15: Define Biotechnology?

Ans: “It deals with the practical application of living organisms to make substances for the welfare of mankind”.
Example:
Production of human insulin by bacteria

Q16: What do you know about Pharmacology?

Ans: “It is the study of drugs and their effects on the systems of human body”.
Example:
Paracetamol used as pain-killer

Q17: What are the Major Biological Issues today?

Ans: The major biological issues of today are as follows:
Human population growth
Infectious diseases
Addictive drugs
Environmental pollution

Q18: How would you define inter-disciplinary sciences?

Ans: Biology includes information on various aspects of living things but these information relates to the other branches of science as well. Each branch of science has relationships with all other branches. This forms the basis of interdisciplinary sciences.
Example:
The study of basic metabolism of photosynthesis and respiration involves the knowledge of chemistry,

Q19: What is meant by biophysics?

Ans: “It deals with the study of the principles of physics, which apply to biological phenomena.”
Example:
There is a similarity between the working principles of lever in physics and limbs of animals in biology.

Q20: Define Biochemistry?

Ans: “It deals with the study of the chemistry of different compounds and processes occurring in living organisms.”
Examples:
The study of basic metabolism of photosynthesis and respiration involves the knowledge of chemistry.

Q21: What is meant by Biogeography?

Ans: “It deals with study of the occurrence and distribution of different species of living organisms in different geographical regions of the world.”
It applies the knowledge of the characteristics of particular geographical regions to determine the characteristics of living organisms found there.

Q22: Define Bio-metry?

Ans: “It deals with study of biological processes using mathematical techniques and tools.”
Example:
To analyze the data gathered after experimental work, biologists have to apply the rules of mathematics.

Q23: Define Bio-economics?

Ans: “It deals with the study of organisms from economical point of view.”
Example:
The cost value and profit value of the yield of wheat can be calculated through bioeconomics.

Q24: Define Agriculture and discuss role of agriculturist?

Ans: “This profession deals with the food crops and animals which are the source of food.”
Scope of Agriculture:
An agriculturist works for the betterment of crops like wheat, rice, corn etc and animals from which we get food.

Q25: What do you know about Horticulture?

Ans: “This profession includes the art of gardening.”
Scope of Horticulture:
A horticulturist works for the betterment of existing varieties and for the production of new varieties of ornamental plants and fruit plants.
Adoptation of Profession:
Biology students can adopt this profession after their higher secondary education.

Q26: Name the professions that can be adopted after bachelor levels of zoology.

Ans: Following professions can be adopted after bachelor levels of zoology,
Fisheries
Farming
Forestry

Q27: What is farming? Give examples of different farms.

Ans: “It deals with the development and maintenance of different types of farms.
Examples:
In some farms, animal breeding technologies are used for the production of animals which are better protein and milk sources.
In poultry farms, chicken and eggs are produced.
In fruit farms, different fruit yielding plants are grown.

Q28: Name any four careers in biology?

Ans: Following are the four careers in biology,
Medicine
Surgery
Fisheries
Farming

Q29: Quote a verse from Holy Quran that hints at common origin of all living things?

Ans: At many places in Holy Quran, Allah hints about the common origin and characteristics of living organisms.
Verse:
“We made every living thing from water.”
(Sura: Ambia, Verse: 30)

Q30: What are the contributions of Abdul Malik Asmai in field of science?

Ans: Ile is considered the first Muslim scientist who studied animals in detail.
Famous Books:
Ilis famous writings include:
“Al-Abil (camel)”
“Al-Khail (horse)”
“Al-Wahoosh (animal)”
“Khalq al-Ansan”

Q31: Describe the services of Jabir Bin Hayan. Also give names of his two famous books?

Ans: He was born in Iran and practiced medicine in Iraq. He introduced experimental investigation in chemistry and also wrote a number of books on plants and animals.
Famous books:
His famous books are.
Al-Nabatat
Al-Haywan.

Q32: Name the books written by following scientists?

Ans: Jabir-Bin-Hayan:
Abdul Malik Asmai:
Al-Nabatat, Al-Haywan Al-Abil (camel), Al-Khail (horse), Al-Wahoosh (animal), Khalq al-ansan Bu-Ali-Sina Al-Qanun-Fi-Al-Tib

Q33: What is role of Bu Ali Sina in Biology?

Ans: He is honored as the founder of medicine and called as Avicenna in the west. He was a physician, philosopher, astronomer, and poet.
Famous Book:
One of his books “Al-Qanun-fi al-Tib” is known as the canon of medicine in West.

Q34: Define an atom and also tell its meaning?

Ans: Definition:
“An atom is defined as simplest form of matter which cannot be further sub divided” It is composed of three fundamental particles:
Electrons
Protons
Neutrons
Meaning
“a” means not and ‘tom’means cul

Q35: Define bio-elements and enlist them?

Ans: “The elements that take part in making the body mass of a living organism are called bio-elements.”
There are total of 16 bio-elements.
Only six (O, C, H, N, Ca, & P) make 99% of the total mass.
Other ten (K, S, Cl, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn & I) collectively make 01% of the total mass

Q36: What is Biomolecule?

Ans: “In organisms, bioelements usually do not occur in isolated forms rather they combine through ionic or covalent bonding. The stable particle formed by such bonding is called as biomolecule.”

Q37: Write down names of bio-molecule groups?

Ans: Following are the names of groups of bio-molecules.
(i) Macromolecules
(ii) Macromolecules

Q38: Differentiate between Micromolecule and Macromolecule?

Ans: MACROMOLECULE
The biomolecules with low molecular weight a called micromolecules.
The biomolecules with high molecular weight called macromolecules.
Examples:
Glucose
Water

Q39: Explain macro molecules with example.

Ans: The bio-molecules which have high molecular weights are called macromolecules.
Examples:
Starch
Proteins
Lipids

Q40: What is the difference between organelle and cell?

Ans: ORGANELLE CELL
Bio-molecules assemble in a particular way and The organelles are actually sub-cellular structures form organelles. and when they assemble together, cells are forn
Examples:
Mitochondria
Ribosomes

Q41: Define Tissue & Give examples?

Ans: “Similar cells performing similar functions are organized into groups called tissues”
OR
“A tissue is a group of similar cells specialized for the performance of a common function”
Examples:
Epidermal tissue and ground tissue in plants
Nervous tissue and muscular tissues in animals

Q42: What is meant by organ system?

Ans: Different organs performing related functions are organized together in the form of an organ system. In an organ system, each organ carries out its specific function and the functions of all organs appear as the function of the organ system.
Example:
The digestive system is an organ system that carries out the process of digestion. Major organs in its framework are oral cavity, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, and pancreas. All these organs help in the process of digestion.

Q43: What is the difference between organ system level of Animals and plants?

Ans: The organ system level is less complex in plants as compared to animals.
Reason:
The less complexity of organ system level in plants is due to a greater range of functions and activities in animals than in plants.

Q44: Define individual?

Ans: “Different organs and organ systems are organized together to form an individual or organism.” free ilm
Coordination in Organism: In organism, the functions, processes and activities of various organs and organ systems are coordinated.

Q45: Define Population?

Ans: “A group of organisms of the same species located at the same place in the same time is called population.”
Example:
According to Ministry of Population Welfare, Government of Pakistan, human population in Pakistan in 2010 comprised of 173.5 million individuals.

Q46: Define Community with its types?

Ans: “An assemblage of different populations, interacting with one another within the same environment is called community.”
Example:
A forest
Types:
Following are the types of community.
(i) Complex Community:
Some communities are complex.
Examples:
A forest community
A pond community
(ii) Simple Community:
Some communities may be simple.
Example:
A fallen log with various populations under it.
In a simple community number and size of populations is limited.

Q47: Name the levels of organization in correct order.

Ans: Levels of organization:
(1) Sub atomic and atomic level
(ii) Molecular level
(iii) Organelle and cell level
(iv) Tissue level
(v) Organ and organ system level
(vi) Individual level
(vii) Population level
(viii) Community level
(ix) Bio-sphere level

Q48: What is biosphere level?

Ans: “The part of the Earth inhabited by organism communities is known as biosphere.” It constitutes all ecosystems (areas where living organisms interact with the nonliving components of the environment) and is also called the zone of life on Earth.

Q49: Name the types of cellular organizations.

Ans: In living organisms the cells organize in three ways to make the bodies of organisms.
(1) Unicellular Organization
(ii) Colonial Organization
(iii) Multicellular Organization

Q50: Name any four unicellular organisms.

Ans: The names of unicellular organisms are given below,
Amoeba
Paramecium
Euglena
Bacterium

Q51: Describe colonial type of cellular organization with example?

Ans: In colonial type of cellular organization, many unicellular organisms live together but do
not have any division of labor among them. Each unicellular organism in a colony lives its own life and does not depend on other cells for its vital requirements.
Example:
Volvox is a green alga found in water that shows colonial organization. Hundreds of Volvox cells make a colony.

Q52: What is multicellular organization? Explain with an example.

Ans: In multicellular organization, cells are organized in the form of tissues, organs and organ systems.
Examples:
•Frog and mustard plants are familiar examples of multicellular organization.
Explanation:
Frog shows the multicellular organization. The body is made of organ systems and each organ system consists of related organs. All the organs are made of specific tissues (epithelial, glandular, muscular, nervous etc).

Q53: Write down scientific Names of Mustard Plant and Frog?

Ans: Scientific name of mustard plant is, Brassica campestris Scientific name of Frog is,
Rana tigrina

Q54: Write the importance of mustard plant.

Ans: Mustard plant (scientific name: Brassica compestris) is sown in winter and it produces seeds at the end of winter. The plant body is used as vegetable and its seeds are used for extracting oil.

Q55: What is difference between vegetative and reproductive organs of plants?

Ans: VEGETATIVE ORGANS
The organs which do not take part in the sexual reproduction of the plant are called vegetative organs The organs which take part in the sexual reproduction of the plant and produce fruits and seeds are called reproductive organs
Examples:
Root
Stem
Branches
Leaves
REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
Example:
Flower

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