Computer class 9th

9th Class Computer Chapter 4 Data and Privacy

9th Class Computer Chapter 4 Data and Privacy Short And Spmple Question & Answer

Q.1. What are computer ethics?

Ans: Computer ethics are the moral rules and guidelines that determine the proper use of computer system. The computer should be used according to the ethics in order to avoid any problem in the society.

Q.2. List any five Issues related to data security.

Ans: Five issues related to data security are confidentiality & privacy, piracy, patent, copyright and trade secrets.

Q.3. Define confidentiality.

Ans: Confidentiality is the responsibility to keep other’s personal information private. It is a matter of taking care of other people.

Q.4. What is data privacy?

Ans: Data privacy refers io the right of an individual or an organization to keep personal information private. It is typically related to the personal information stored on the computer.

Q.5. Why has confidentiality and privacy become critical?

Ans: The privacy and confidentiality have become very critical due to the use of computers and the Internet. The potential threat to the personal data includes the improper use of computerized dale.

Q.6. What Is meant by piracy?

Ans: Piracy refers to the process of making illegal copies of any work protected by the copyright law. It can be book, software, song, movie, poetry, painting, or house design etc.

Q.7. Differentiate between authorized and unauthorized access.

Ans: The process of accessing a computer system and its resources legally is called authorized access the process of accessing a computer system and its resources illegally is called unauthorized access.

Q.8. What do you mean by software piracy?

Ans: Software piracy is the illegal copying, distribution or use of copyright software. Most licensed software can only be used by one user on one computer. The user can copy the software tor backup but it is illegal to use it on different computer.

Q.9. What type of software Is available at no cost?

Ans: 0 The open-source software is available at no cost. Anyone can modify the source code and redistribute it.

Q.10. What is key?

Ans: The software companies sell software along with a confidential text called key. The software can be activated using the key. The key is only given to the users who legally buy the software.

Q.11. Define cracking.

Ans: Some people try to get software key using illegal means This process is known as cracking.

Q.12. List five types of software piracy.

Ans: Five types of software piracy are soft lifting, client-server overuse, hard disk loading, counterfeiting and online piracy.

Q.13. What is soft lifting?

Ans: soft lifting is a process of borrowing a software application from a colleague and installing it on your device.

Q.14. What Is client server overuse?

Ans: Client-server overuse is a process of installing more copies of the software than number of licenses. It is typically done in client-server network.

Q.15. What Is hard disk loading?

Ans: Hard disk loading Is a process of installing and selling unauthorized copies of the software on new or refurbished computers.

Q.16. What is counterfeiting?

Ans: Counterfeiting is a process of selling the duplicate copies of the software.

Q.17. What Is meant by online piracy?

Ans: Online piracy Is a process of downloading the Illegal copies of software.

Q.18. How are computers used for fraud and misuse?

Ans: Fraud and misuse refer to the unauthorized activities. The computers and the Internet are frequently used to perform such activities. It includes theft of money by electronic means. theft of services and theft of valuable data..

Q.19. What is patent?

Ans: A patent is a right that is granted to the owner for a certain period of time. It is effective way to protect the idea. It can be for any invention such as device substance, method, or process. Any other person or organization cannot copy that idea for a certain period.

Q.20. Why Is It Important to register a patent?

Ans: It Is important to register a patent If someone is doing research in any field and has a new idea. It stops other people to make or sell anything on the basis of that idea. The owner of the Idea can exclusively use the idea to make and sell anything.

Q.21. What do you mean by copyright?

Ans: A copyright is a type of legal protection that protects some Idea or product from being copied. It is illegal to use any copyrighted material such as book, software, picture, video, or music. The copyright symbol is usually used with copyrighted material.

Q.22. What Is meant by trade secrets?

Ans: Trade secrets refer to the secret information of a company that play Important role for Its success. They have a lot of value and importance for the company. They provide the company an advantage over the other companies.

Q.23. Why Is It Important to protect trade secrets?

Ans: The trade secrets must be protected carefully. It ensures that the company has a competitive advantage over others. The unauthorized use of trade secrets can harm the company.

Q.24. What is sabotage?

Ans: Sabotage is a serious attack on a computer system. A malicious user can attack the computer system remotely over the network. The attacker may include virus with some. free software. It may change or destroy information and sabotage important data on the system.

Q.25. Give five examples of the organizations that store data of the people in computers?

Ans: Five examples of these organizations are hospitals, NADRA, schools, Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, and passport offices.

Q.26. What is meant by data brokers?

Ans: There are many companies that collect. buy and sell the consumer Information. These companies are known as data brokers. They use this information to know the interests of the people.

Q.27. What are cookies?

Ans: A lot of Information is generated when the user browses the Internet. This information is usually stored with the Web surfer known as cookies. The cookies can track the interests of the people when they visit different websites.9th Class

Q.28. Define encryption?

Ans: Encryption is the process of encoding plain data into unreadable format.

Q.29. What is ciphertext?

Ans: The unreadable format of data is called ciphertext. It is performed in encryption.

Q.30. Define decryption?

Ans: The process of converting ciphertext bock to plain text is called decryption.

Q.31. How is the encrypted data converted into plain data?

Ans: A secret code is required to convert the encrypted data into plain data in order to read it. The secret code is called key and Is just like a password.

Q.32. Why is encryption performed?

Ans: The encryption is performed to ensure that only authorized persons can read the data. It is an important method of providing data security. It ensures protection from hackers and privacy. The data is protected when transferred across devices.

Q.33. What is substitution cipher method?

Ans: Substitution cipher method is a method of encryption in which the characters of original text are replaced with some other characters. The substitution is done by a fixed predefined system. Two types of substitution cipher methods are Caesar cipher and Vigenère cipher.

Q.34. What Is Caesar cipher method?

Ans: Caesar cipher method replaces each alphabet in the plain text with another alphabet. Each alphabet is replaced with the alphabet that is at a fixed number of positions to the left or right of original alphabet.

Q.35. Who was Caesar?

Ans: Caesar was a Roman politician and military general. He was born in July 13, 100
BC. Rome. Italy. He played an important role in the rise of Roman Empire. He was killed on March 15 44BC.

Q.36. Write any two quotes of was Caesar?

Ans: Experience is the teacher of all things. Men freely believe that which they desire.

Q.37. What is Vigenère cipher method?

Ans: Vigenère cipher method uses a table known as Vigenère Cipher table. The Vigenère cipher method works with substitution key. The key is combined with the plaintext to generate the ciphertext.

Q.38. What is Vigenère cipher table?9th Class

Ans: The Vigenère cipher table consists of 26 rows and 26 columns. The first row contains the original alphabets from A to Z. The alphabet is shifted one letter to the left in each subsequent row. The rows and columns are labeled by alphabets from A to Z.

Q.39. What Is meant by Interim cipher?

Ans: In some cases, the key in Vigenère method may have less number of cases than the plaintext. The letters from the beginning of the plaintext are used to make the length of the key same as the plaintext. It Is known as interim ciphertext.

Q.40. What is Vigenère cipher widget?

Ans: The Vigenère cipher widget shows animation of the encryption and decryption of plaintext. It uses Vigenère cipher method according to the given key.

Q.41. What Is random substitution method?

Ans: The messages encrypted with Caesar cipher method are easy to crack. This method can be modified by shifting the letter to a random letter. This IS called random substitution cipher method.

Q.42. What do you know about frequency analysis?

Ans: The frequency analysis is the study of the frequency of letters or group of letters in a ciphertext. This method is used as an aid to break the.

Q.43. What is the purpose of password?

Ans: The purpose of password is to protect data stored on a computer. It protects data from being lost. misused or deleted by any person. The system can be accessed by a person who knows the password. Password can be changed only by authorized person.

Q.44. Write any three characteristics of a good password.

Ans: A good password consists of at least eight characters. it does not contaln username, real name. children name or company name. It is different om previous passwords.

Q.45. Differentiate between cryptographic key and password.

Ans: The cryptographic key is used to read an encrypted message whereas password Is used for authentication to enter system whereas. A key is not same as the password in computer security, but a password can be used as a key. A password is generated, read, remembered, and reproduced by humans but a key is used by software or humans to process a message.

Q.46. What Is CAPTCHA?9th Class

Ans: CAPTCHA is a set of random letters and numbers that appear as a distorted image and a textbox. The user needs to type the characters In the Image Into the textbox to gain access to the system. CAPTCHA text is only readable by humans not the computer.

Q.47. What Is cybercrime?

Ans: A cybercrime is a criminal activity carried out by means of computers and the internet. In some cybercrimes, the computer is used to commit a crime such as fraud, kidnapping, murder and stealing money from bank account or credit card.

Q.48. How do the criminal access personal information?

Ans: The criminals use Internet to access the personal information such as username, password, and credit card number.

Q.49. List any three types of cybercrime.

Ans: Three types of cybercrimes are identity theft, transection fraud, DoS attack, and hacking.

Q.50. What Is identity theft?

Ans: The identity theft is a criminal activity in which the hacker traps someone to give the account details and password. The hacker can then use the account of the user to perform any malicious activities.

Q.51. How does transaction fraud occur?

Ans: The transaction fraud is a criminal activity in which the scammer performs an illegal transaction. For example, the scammer offers an item for online. Someone buys the items and makes the payment, but the scammer never delivers the item.

Q.52. How does advance fee fraud occur?

Ans: The advance fee fraud is a criminal activity in which the criminal informs the user that he has won a prize or lottery. He then asks the user to submit a processing fee so the prize may be dispatched. It is very common type of cybercrime in which people lose the money.

Q.53. What is hacking and hacker?

Ans: An act of unauthorized access to the computer or network is called hacking. The person who gains unauthorized access to the computer system is called hacker. The hackers are computer experts and use their knowledge to break into the computer system and network.

Q.54. When does hacking usually happen?

Ans: Hacking usually happens when user downloads a file from the Internet and executes It. The software connects hacker to the computer. The hackers typically access the information for financial benefits such as stealing money from bank account or using credit card.

Q.55. What is spyware?

Ans: Spyware is a type of software that is used in hacking. It connects the hacker to the computer to access important Information without user knowledge. It runs in the background and collects information such as bank details and passwords.

Q.56. What is National Response Centre against cybercrime?

Ans: The National Response Centre for cybercrime is a law enforcement agency of Pakistan. It is dedicated to fight cybercrimes; it is working under Federal9.

Q.57. What is phishi (BA), Its website is Is attack?

Ans: A phishing attack is a criminal activity in which the criminal uses fake email and website to get sensitive information such as username. password and credit card details.

Q.58. What is meant by denial of service?

Ans: A Denial of Service (DoS) is a cyber-attack that makes a machine or network resource unavailable. The attack makes the resource too busy by sending many requests for it. The actual user cannot get it. It sometimes overloads system so much that network is shut down.

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