2nd Year NotesBiology class 12th

2nd Year Biology Chapter 16 Support & Movement

2nd Year Biology Chapter 16 Support & Movement Question & Answer

Short An Simple Question & Answer

Q 1. What do growth rings indicate?

Ans. Growth rings indicate the age of a tree at the time it was cut, with one ring formed each year.

Q 2. What is the function of heartwood?

Ans. The function of heartwood is to accumulate chemicals like resins, oils, gums, and tannins, providing resistance to decay and insect attacks.

Q 3. What are sleep movements?

Ans. Sleep movements refer to the lowering of leaves in the evening and raising them in the morning, observed in plants like beans and some legumes.

Q 4. What is Nyctinasty?

Ans. Nyctinasty involves organ movements in response to external stimuli, driven by turgor and growth changes.

Q 5. What is cartilage?

Ans. Cartilage is a softer connective tissue that covers the ends of bones at joints, and provides support to flexible parts like the nose and external ears.

Q 6. How many categories are joints classified into and what are they called?

Ans. Joints are classified into three categories based on the amount of movement they allow:

  1. Immovable joints
  2. Slightly movable joints
  3. Freely movable joints

Q 7. What is sciatica?

Ans. Sciatica is characterized by stabbing pain radiating along the sciatic nerve, typically caused by injury to the proximal sciatic nerve due to reasons such as a fall, herniated disc, or improper injection administration into the buttock.

Q 8. How many steps are involved in repairing broken bones? Name them?

Ans. The repair process of a simple fracture takes place in four phases:

  1. Haematoma formation
  2. Callus formation
  3. Bony callus formation
  4. Remodelling

Q 9. Why are heart muscles known as cardiac muscles?

Ans. Cardiac muscles are the muscles of the heart, constituting most of the mass of the heart walls. They are also striated and involuntary, hence referred to as cardiac muscles.

Q 10. What are digitigrades?

Ans. Digitigrades are mammals that walk on their digits only, allowing them to run faster than plantigrade animals, such as rabbits and rodents.

Q 11. What are cross bridges?

Ans. Cross bridges are the heads of myosin that make links with actin during muscle contraction.

Q 12. What is “Rigor Mortis”?

Ans. Rigor Mortis is a condition that occurs after death when the amount of ATP in the body decreases, causing muscle bridges to remain firmly bound and resulting in the stiffening of the body.

Q 13. Define sarcomere?

Ans. A sarcomere is the region of a myofibril between two successive Z-lines and is the smallest contractile unit of a muscle fiber.

Q 14. What are chondrocytes?

Ans. Chondrocytes are the living cells of cartilage that secrete a flexible, elastic, non-living matrix, which surrounds the chondrocytes.

Q 15. What is spondylosis?

Ans. Spondylosis is a disease that causes immobility and fusion of vertebral joints.

Q 16. What is a hydro-skeleton or hydrostatic skeleton?

Ans. A hydro-skeleton, or hydrostatic skeleton, provides support and resistance to muscle contractions by using a fluid-filled gastrovascular cavity or coelom in some animals.

Q 17. What is hyaline cartilage?

Ans. Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant type of cartilage in the human body, typically found at movable joints.

Q 18. What provides support in plants and animals?

Ans. In plants, collenchymatous cells provide support to young plants, while sclerenchymatous cells support adult plants. In animals, muscles, cartilage, and bones offer support.

Q 19. What is turgor pressure?

Ans. Turgor pressure is the internal hydrostatic pressure that develops when living cells of the epidermis, cortex, and pith take in water by osmosis, keeping them rigid and resistant to bending.

Q 20. What is a bundle cap?

Ans. In some plant stems, like the sunflower, bundle caps are formed by additional sclerenchyma fibers that strengthen the vascular bundles.

Q 21. What is tonoplast?

Ans. Tonoplast is the membrane that bounds a vacuole and contains various active transport systems that pump ions into the vacuole.

Q 22. What are fibers or tracheids?

Ans. Fibers or tracheids are long, cylindrical cells that can exist in solid bundles in xylem or as bundle caps.

Q 23. What are sclereids?

Ans. Sclereids are shorter cells found in seed coats and nutshells, providing protection.

Q 24. What are vessels or trachea?

Ans. Vessels or trachea are long tubular structures that join end to end to form long water-conducting pipes in xylem.

Q 25. Define secondary growth?

Ans. Secondary growth is an increase in plant growth due to the activity of vascular cambium and is most evident in woody, perennial plants like trees, shrubs, and vines.

Q 26. Which meristems are involved in secondary growth?

Ans. Secondary growth occurs due to cell division in:

  • Vascular cambium
  • Cork cambium

Q 27. What is sapwood and heartwood?

Ans. Sapwood is the active portion of trees responsible for conducting, while heartwood is the inactive, non-conducting wood in older trees.

Q 28. What is callus or wood tissue?

Ans. The cambium forms callus or wood tissue over a wound, consisting of soft parenchymatous tissues, which unite branches during budding and grafting.

Q 29. What is the difference between animal and plant movements?

Ans. Animals move by changing their location in response to stimuli, while plants show movements by altering their growth patterns since they are fixed in one place.

Q 30. What are the main types of movements in plants?

Ans. There are two types of movements in plants:

  1. Autonomic movements
  2. Growth movements

Q 31. What are autonomic movements, and what are their main types?

Ans. Autonomic movements are spontaneous movements in plants due to internal causes. They have three main types:

  1. Tactic movements
  2. Turgor movements
  3. Growth movements

Q 32. Define tactic movements.

Ans. Tactic movements are movements of entire cells or organisms in response to external stimuli. They can be either positive, moving toward the stimulus, or negative, moving away from the stimulus.

Q 33. What is phototactic movement?

Ans. Phototactic movement is a response to the stimulus of light. For example, chloroplasts in plant cells show positive phototactic movements to absorb more light for photosynthesis.

Q 34. What is chemotactic movement?

Ans. Chemotactic movements are responses to chemical stimuli. For instance, the movements of sperms in some plants towards archegonia due to the stimulus of nucleic acids released by the ovum are examples of chemotactic movements.

Q 35. What are turgor movements?

Ans. Turgor movements occur due to changes in turgor and cell size caused by the gain or loss of water. Examples include the rapid movements of leaflets in the “touch me not” plant and sleep movements in certain plants.

Q 36. What are growth movements?

Ans. Growth movements result from unequal growth on different sides of plant organs, such as stems, roots, tendrils, and buds.

Q 37. Define epinasty?

Ans. Epinasty is a type of movement seen in leaves and petals. In this movement, the upper surface of a leaf in bud condition shows more growth than the lower surface, leading to the opening of buds.

Q 38. Define hyponasty?

Ans. Hyponasty occurs when the lower surface of a leaf in bud condition grows more than the upper surface, causing the bud to remain closed.

Q 39. Define mutation?

Ans. Nutation is the zigzag-like movement of the growing tip of a young stem due to alternating growth on opposite sides of the apex.

Q 40. What are tropic movements?

Ans. Tropic movements involve changes in curvature of an entire plant part toward or away from stimuli like light, gravity, and touch.

Q 41. Define phototropism?

Ans. Phototropism is a movement of plant parts in response to the stimulus of light, resulting from differential growth of that part.

Q 42. What is thigmotropism?

Ans. Thigmotropism is the movement of plant parts in response to the stimulus of touch. An example is climbing vines that coil around a support when they come into contact with it.

Q 43. Define chemotropism?

Ans. Chemotropism is the movement in response to chemical stimuli. It’s seen in the hyphae of fungi, for instance.

Q 44. Define hydrotropism?

Ans. Hydrotropism is the movement of plant parts in response to the stimulus of water. Roots exhibit positive hydrotropism, while shoots show negative hydrotropism.

Q 45. Define geotropism or gravitropism?

Ans. Geotropism, or gravitropism, is the response to gravity. Roots display positive geotropism (growing towards gravity), and shoots show negative geotropism (growing away from gravity).

Q 46. What are nastic movements?

Ans. Nastic movements are non-directional movements of plant parts in response to external stimuli.

Q 47. Define photonasty?

Ans. Photonasty is driven by photoperiod, causing flowers to open and close based on their light sensitivity.

Q 48. Define thermonasty?

Ans. Thermonasty is a movement in response to temperature changes. For instance, tulip flowers close at night due to rapid growth on the lower side, leading to upward and inward bending of the petals.

Q 49. What are haptonastic movements?

Ans. Haptonastic movements occur in response to contact. The Venus flytrap is an example of an organism that exhibits this type of movement.

Q 50. What is a skeleton?

Ans. A skeleton is the tough and rigid framework of an animal’s body, providing protection, shape, and support to its organs.

Q 51. What are the different types of skeletons?

Ans. There are three main types of skeletons in animals:

  1. Hydrostatic Skeleton
  2. Exoskeleton
  3. Endoskeleton

Q 52. Define exoskeleton?

Ans. An exoskeleton is the hardened outer surface of an animal’s body, allowing internal muscles to attach to it.

Q 53. What is the composition of the exoskeleton?

Ans. The exoskeleton consists of two layers: the outermost epicuticle, composed of waxy lipoproteins, and the underlying procuticle, which is made of chitin and various proteins.

Q 54. What is moulting or ecdysis?

Ans. Moulting or ecdysis is the process where arthropods periodically shed their exoskeleton to replace it with a larger one as they grow.

Q 55. What is an endoskeleton?

Ans. An endoskeleton is a skeleton that lies internally within an animal’s body, providing support, shape, protection, and enabling locomotion.

Q 56. What is the composition of the endoskeleton?

Ans. The endoskeleton primarily consists of two types of tissues:

  1. Bones
  2. Cartilage

Both bones and cartilage are forms of rigid connective tissue, with living cells embedded in a collagen matrix.

Q 57. What do you know about compact bone?

Ans. Compact bone is dense and strong, offering attachment sites for muscles.

Q 58. What are the characteristics of spongy bone?

Ans. Spongy bone is light, rich in blood vessels, and highly porous. Its cavities contain bone marrow, where blood cells are produced.

Q 59. Name the cells associated with bone?

Ans. There are three main types of cells associated with bone:

  1. Osteoblasts (Bone-forming cells)
  2. Osteocytes (Mature bone cells)
  3. Osteoclasts (Bone-dissolving cells)
  4. Q 60. What is fibrocartilage?
  5. Ans. Fibrocartilage is a type of cartilage that contains a matrix with bundles of collagen fibers. It is found in external parts of the ear and the epiglottis.
  6. Q 61. What is the axial skeleton?
  7. Ans. The axial skeleton includes the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum. It provides central structural support and protection to vital organs.
  8. Q 62. Name the bones of the cranium?
  9. Ans. The bones of the cranium include paired bones such as the parietal and temporal bones, as well as unpaired bones like the frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.
  10. Q 63. Name the bones of the facial region?
  11. Ans. In the facial region, there are paired bones like the maxilla, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, palatine, and inferior concha. The unpaired bones are the mandible and vomer.
  12. Q 64. What is the vertebral column?
  13. Ans. The vertebral column, also known as the backbone, extends from the skull to the pelvis and protects the spinal cord. It consists of 33 vertebrae categorized as cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and pelvic based on their location.
  14. Q 65. What is the sacrum?
  15. Ans. The sacrum is formed by the fusion of the anterior five vertebrae in the pelvic region.
  16. Q 66. What is the coccyx?
  17. Ans. The coccyx is formed by the fusion of the four posterior vertebrae in the pelvic region.
  18. Q 67. Why are the lower two pairs of ribs called “floating ribs”?
  19. Ans. The lower two pairs of ribs are called “floating ribs” because they do not attach directly to the sternum.
  20. Q 68. What is the appendicular skeleton?
  21. Ans. The appendicular skeleton consists of the pectoral girdle and appendages (forelimbs) and the pelvic girdle and appendages (hind limbs).
  22. Q 69. What does the pectoral girdle comprise?
  23. Ans. The pectoral girdle, which attaches the arms to the trunk, comprises the scapula, supra-scapula, and clavicle. The clavicle connects the scapula with the sternum.
  24. Q 70. Name the different bones of the forelimb?
  25. Ans. The forelimb includes the humerus, radius, ulna, 8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, and 14 phalanges.
  26. Q 71. What are the important features of the pelvic girdle?
  27. Ans. The pelvic girdle attaches the hind limb to the vertebral column and consists of two coxal bones. Each coxal bone is formed by the fusion of three bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis.
  28. Q 72. Name the different parts of the hind limb?
  29. Ans. The hind limb includes one femur, 2 tibia + fibula, 8 tarsals, 5 metatarsals, and 14 phalanges.
  30. Q 73. What are the different classes of joints based on structure?
  31. Ans. Joints are classified into three main categories based on their structure:
  32. Fibrous Joints
  33. Cartilaginous Joints
  34. Synovial Joints
  35. Q 74. What are hinge joints?
  36. Ans. Hinge joints are joints that allow movement in two directions, such as the elbow and knee.
  37. Q 75. What are ball & socket joints?
  38. Ans. Ball & socket joints permit movement in several directions and have at least two pairs of muscles perpendicular to each other. Examples include the hip joint and shoulder joint.
  39. Q 76. What is cleft palate?
  40. Ans. Cleft palate is a condition in which the palatine processes of the maxilla and palatine bone fail to fuse properly, resulting in an opening in the roof of the mouth.
  41. Q 77. What is arthritis?
  42. Ans. Arthritis encompasses over 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and increased friction in the affected joints.
  43. Q 78. What is osteoporosis?
  44. Ans. Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by brittle and fragile bones due to reduced bone mass. It typically affects aging women with decreased estrogen levels.
  45. Q 79. What is osteomalacia?
  46. Ans. Osteomalacia, or “soft bone,” includes disorders in which bones lack adequate mineralization, causing them to become soft and weak. Weight-bearing bones of the legs and pelvis may bend and deform.
  47. Q 80. What is rickets?
  48. Ans. Rickets is a disease primarily affecting children and is characterized by bowed legs and a deformed pelvis. It results from dietary calcium deficiency or a lack of vitamin D.
  49. Q 81. What is disc-slip?
  50. Ans. Disc-slip, or herniated disc, occurs when one or more spinal discs rupture due to severe physical trauma, leading to the protrusion of the spongy nucleus pulposus.
  51. Q 82. What is closed reduction?
  52. Ans. In closed reduction, a physician uses manual manipulation to coax bone ends back to their normal position without surgery.
  53. Q 83. What is open reduction?
  54. Ans. In open reduction, surgery is performed to secure bone ends together with pins or wires.
  55. Q 84. What are muscles?
  56. Ans. Muscles are specialized cells responsible for movement in multicellular animals. They contain actin and myosin proteins organized into numerous filaments.
  57. Q 85. Name different types of muscles in vertebrates?
  58. Ans. Vertebrates have three types of muscles:
  59. Smooth muscles
  60. Skeletal muscles
  61. Cardiac muscles
  62. Q 101. What is tetany?
  63. Ans. Tetany is a condition caused by low blood calcium levels, leading to increased neuron excitability, muscle twitches, and convulsions.
  64. Q 102. What is a cramp?
  65. Ans. A cramp is a brief or prolonged, painful, and involuntary muscle contraction, often occurring in the thigh and hip muscles.
  66. Q 103. What are the parts of a skeletal muscle?
  67. Ans. Skeletal muscles consist of three parts: Origin, Insertion, and Belly.
  68. Q 104. What are ligaments and tendons?
  69. Ans. Ligaments connect bone to bone and have some elasticity, while tendons connect muscles to bones and are non-elastic.
  70. Q 105. What is an antagonistic arrangement?
  71. Ans. Antagonistic arrangement refers to muscles at a joint working against each other by contracting.
  72. Q 106. What are brachialis and brachioradialis?
  73. Ans. Brachialis and brachioradialis are muscles located below the biceps brachii. The brachialis is inserted in the ulna, while the brachioradialis is inserted in the radius and both help bend the arm at the elbow.
  74. Q 107. How do Euglena, Paramecium, and Amoeba move?
  75. Ans. Euglena moves using a flagellum, Paramecium moves with cilia, and Amoeba moves by extending pseudopodia.
  76. Q 108. What is an effective stroke?
  77. Ans. The effective stroke occurs when five out of nine double fibrils contract or slide simultaneously, causing cilia to bend or shorten.
  78. Q 109. What is a recovery stroke?
  79. Ans. The recovery stroke happens when four out of nine double fibrils contract, causing cilia to straighten.
  80. Q 110. What is the type of locomotion in jellyfish and earthworm?
  81. Ans. Jellyfish use jet propulsion for movement, while earthworms exhibit accordion-like movement involving setae and muscles.
  82. Q 111. How does a cockroach locomote?
  83. Ans. Cockroaches primarily move by swift walking but can also take flight using their wings.
  84. Q 112. How do snails and mussels move?
  85. Ans. Snails and mussels move slowly by crawling with the help of their foot.
  86. Q 113. What are tube feet?
  87. Ans. Tube feet are locomotion organs in starfish.
  88. Q 114. What is a swim bladder?
  89. Ans. A swim bladder is a specialized structure in bony fish that helps maintain buoyancy in water.
  90. Q 115. How do amphibians wriggle?
  91. Ans. Amphibians wriggle along the ground on their bellies, using segmentally arranged muscles. When moving deliberately, their legs hardly touch the ground.
  92. Q 116. What is bipedal locomotion?
  93. Ans. Bipedal locomotion involves animals walking on their hind limbs, freeing their front appendages for other functions like prey capture or flight.
  94. Q 117. What is passive flight?
  95. Ans. Passive flight occurs when birds glide, utilizing their wings as aerofoils to generate lift from the air.
  96. Q 118. What is active flight?
  97. Ans. Active flight involves birds flapping their wings to achieve lift and propulsion when there is little support from upward air currents.
  98. Q 119. What is plantigrade locomotion?
  99. Ans. In plantigrade locomotion, mammals walk on the soles of their feet, with the palm, wrist, and digits resting on the ground. Examples include monkeys, apes, humans, and bears.
  100. Q 120. What is unguligrade locomotion?
  101. Ans. Unguligrade locomotion is when mammals walk on the tips of their toes, which are modified into hooves, as seen in deer and goats.
  102. Q 121. What causes muscle cramps?
  103. Ans. Muscle cramps can be caused by factors such as low blood sugar, electrolyte depletion, dehydration, and irritability of the spinal cord and neurons.

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