1st Year NotesBiology class 11th

1st year biology Chapter 4 The Cell

1st year biology Chapter 4 The Cell Question an Answers

Short and Simple Question an Answer

Q1: What is nucleoid?

Ans: In prokaryotic cell nucleic material is usually coiled and concentrated in a region of the cell is called nucleoid.

Q2: What is active transport?

Ans: It is the process in which movement of molecules from lower concentration to the higher concentration by energy.

Q3: What is pinocytosis?

Ans: It is the process of taking fluid in large amount. When the living cells take up fluid vesicles and it is also called as cell drinking.

Q4: What is meant by nucleoplasm?
Ans: The nucleus is filled with protein rich substances called nucleoplasm.

Q5: Define chromatides?
Ans: Each chromosome consists of two threads like structures called chromatides.

Q6: What is cytosol?
Ans: Cytoplasm consists of a fluid matrix called cytosol in which the organells are found.

Q7: What is fluid mosaic model of DNA?
Ans: Singer and Nicholson proposed working model of plasma membrane called fluid mosaic model.

Q8: What are the main functions of cell membrane?
Ans: The main functions of plasma membrane are protection of protoplasm, regulation of flow of solutes and material across it due to its selective permeability.

Q9: Define vacules?
Ans: Vacules are non protoplasmic liquid filled cavities surrounded by tonoplast.

Q10: How many membrane? components are of plasma?
Ans: There arc two components of plasma membrane, phospholipids and protein.

Q11: What is cyclosis?
Ans: Cytoplam shows a movement in circular manner called cyclosis.

Q12: What is cytoskeleton?
Ans: The network of fibrous proteins give three dimensional structure to cell called cytoskeleton.

Q13: Define microfilaments?
Cytoplasm consists of a mass of tiny filaments are called microfilaments.

Q14: Define osmosis?
Ans: Movement of solvent molecules from the region higher concentration to the region of lower concentration in the presence of a semi permeable membrane is called osmosis.

Q15: What is chromatin network?
Ans: A network of fine loosely connected threads in the nucleoplasm is called chromatin network.

Q16: What is fractionation?
Ans: It is the isolation of cellular component by breaking and spinning the cell.

Q17: What are proplastides?
Ans: Proplastides are colorless. immature plastids found in meristematic tissues, where division of cells takes place.

Q18: What is the function of microtubules?
Ans: Microtubules help in the storage of cellulose, movement of chromosomes during cell division, movement of organelles within cytoplasm and movement of cilia and flagella.

Q19: What are plastids?
Ans: Plastids are found in plant cells as a chemical synthesizers and storage bodies.

Q20: What is the function of microfilaments?
Ans: They help in the internal motion of Cells.

Q21: Why cell membrane referred as selective permeable membrane membrane? or differential permeable
Ans: Cell membrane referred as selective permeable membrane or differential permeable membrane because it offers a barrier between the cell contents and their environment; allow only selective substances to pass through it.

Q22: Why phagocytosis referred as cell eating process?
Ans: Because plasma membrane absorbs solid particles in this process.

Q23: Why mitochondria are known as power house of the cell?
Ans: Mitochondria are known as power house of the cell because they are the main centers of the intercellular energy production.

Q24: Why ribosomes are called as protein factories?
Ans: Ribosomes are called as protein factories because they are composed of RNA and protein and they take part in the protein synthesis.

Q25: Why nucleus is considered as a brain of cell?
Ans: Nucleus is considered as a brain of a cell because it controls all the vital activities of a cell.

Q26: What will happen if the function of lysosomes would disturb in cell?
Ans: It may cause the abnormal conditions or diseases.

Q27: Why did it take nearly 200 years from the time of Robert Hooke for the cell theory to develop?
Ans: Because scientists had to technology to develop. wait for the

Q28: Say for instance you are looking a single cell that is green in colour. How do you it is a plant cell?
Ans: Animal cells do not have the chloroplast which makes plant cells look green, so it is a plant cell.

Q29: Which organelle act as a lysosome in plant cell and why?
And: Vacules sometime act as a lysosome in plant cell because they contain hydrolytic enzyme and after the death of cell the enzymes of vacule cause the break down of cell.

Q30: How prokaryotes are different from eukaryotes?

Ans: Prokaryotes are distinguished from eukaryotes on the basis of nuclear organization specifically they lack nuclear membrane and they also lack any intracellular organelle which is double membranacious.

Q31: What will happen if chromosome loses its centromere?
It will be unable to pair with any other chromosome and will result the cell death.

Q32: Why lysosomes are referred as suicide sacs?
Lysosomes contain power digestive enzymes and they have capacity of total cell destruction because of this they are referred as suicide sacs.

Q33: What would happen to a plant cell that suddenly lost its chloroplast?
If the chloroplast die or disappear then the plant would die of hunger.

Q34: Why organelles are important in cells?
Organelles are important in cells because without organelles a cell would not be able to anything and it would be dead.

Q35: How rough endoplasmic reticulum is differs from smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes on their outer surface while smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not contain ribosomes on their surface..

Q36: Which organelle of a cell is transferred from mother only to new generation? and why?
Mitochondria are transferred from mother to new generation because these are present only in eggs not in sperms.

Q37: Which organelles of a cell have its own DNA except nucleus?
: Mitochondria and plastids have their own DNA.

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