Biology class 10thClass Matric Part 2 Notes

10th class biology chapter 13 Support and Movement

10th class biology chapter 12 Support and Movement on Newsongoogle.com by Bilal Article

Shorts and Simple Question & Answers

Q.1 Write the two characteristics of animals?
Ans.
Movement and locomotion are the characteristics of animals.


Q.2 What do you mean by movement?
Ans.
Movement is a general term meaning, the act of changing place or position by entire body or by its parts.


Q.3 How many types of movement are?
Ans.
There are two types of movement:
i. Movements of body parts
ii. Locomotion


Q.4 What do you mean by locomotion?
Ans.
Locomotion is the movement of an animal as a whole from one place to another.


Q.5 What is sternum?
Ans:
Chest bone is called sternum.


Q.6 What do you know about osteoarthritis?
Ans:
It is due to degeneration in cartilage present at joints or due to decrease in lubricant production at joints. In this arthritis, fusion of the bones at joint may occur and joints may become totally immoveable.


Q.7 What is Rheumatoid arthritis? Or Write down causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis, also give its two symptons.
Ans:
It involves the inflammation of the membranes at joints. Its symptoms are fatigue, low grade fever, pain and stiffness of joints.


Q.8 What do you mean by “Exoskeleton”?
Ans.
The skeleton system of some invertebrates e.g. arthropods are at the outside of the body, and are called exoskeleton.


Q.9 What is skeleton? Define briefly.
Ans.
Skeleton system or skeleton is defined as the framework of hard, articulated structure that provides physical support, attachment for skeletal muscles and protection for the bodies of animals.


Q.10 What do you mean by endoskeleton?
Ans.
Like other vertebrates, the human skeleton is on the inside of body and is called endoskeleton.


Q.11 What is the role of skeletal system?
Ans.
The big functions of skeletal system are protection, support and movement of a body. Skeleton works very closely with the muscular system to help us in movement. Similarly skeleton also provides protection to many internal organs e.g. skull protects brain and vertebral column. It also provides the main support to our body mass.


Q.12 What do you know about bone and cartilage?
Ans.
Bone and cartilage are types of connective tissues in animals. Most connective tissue contains collagen fibers in a matrix. Cartilage is dense clear firm connective tissue while bone is hardest connective tissues.


Q.13 Define cartilage. Write names of its two types.
Ans.
Definition:
Cartilage is a dense, clear blue-white firm connective tissue (but less strong than bone).
Names of two types:
1.Hyaline Cartilage
2.Elastic Cartilage


Q.14 What are the cells of cartilage called?
Ans.
The cells of cartilage are called chondrocytes.


Q.15 Where the chondrocyte lies?
Ans. Each chondrocyte lies in a fluid space called lacuna, present in the matrix of cartilage.


Q.16 How many types of cartilage are there?
Ans.
There are three types of cartilage:
i. Hyaline cartilage
ii. Elastic cartilage
iii. Fibrous cartilage


Q.17 What are tendons and ligaments?
Ans.
Tendons and ligaments are connective tissues that contain tightly packed collagen fibers. Tendons are tough bands and attach muscles to bones. Ligaments are flexible bands and join one bone to another at joints.


Q.18 What do you know about Hyaline cartilage?
Ans.
Hyaline cartilage is a strong yet flexible. It is found covering the ends of the long bones, in the nose, larynx, trachea and bronchial tubes.


Q.19 What is Elastic cartilage?
Ans.
Elastic cartilage is similar in structure to hyaline cartilage. It yaline is also quite strong but has elasticity due to a network of elastic fibers in addition to collagen fibers. It is found in epiglottis, pinna etc.


Q.20 What is fibrous cartilage?
Ans.
Fibrous cartilage is very tough and less flexible due to large number of thick collagen fibers present in knitted form. It is found in intervertebral dics.


Q.21 What is a Bone?
Ans.
Bone is a hardest connective tissue in body. Working Bones not only move, support and protect the various parts of body but also produce red and white blood cells and store minerals.


Q.22 What are compact bones and spongy bones?
Ans.
The hard outer layer of a bone is called compact bone while the interior of bone is soft and porous called spongy bone.


Q.23 What matter does bone contain?
Ans.
Spongy bone contains blood vessels and bone marrow. Matrix of bones contain collagen, calcium and phosphate. Bone also contain different types of cells.


Q.24 With how many bones babies are born.
Ans.
Babies are born with about 300 soft bones. Some of these bones later fuse together, so the adult skeleton has 206 hard bones.


Q.25 What are mature bone cells called?
Ans.
The mature bone cells are called osteocytės.


Q.26 Who was Andreas Vesalius? What do you know about him?
Ans.
Andreas Vesalius is honoured for developing modern anatomical studies. He was born in Brussels, Belgium. He made many discoveries in anatomy based on studies made by dissection of human dead bodies. His book contained the most accurate depictions of the whole skeleton and muscles of the human body.


Q.27 What are the components of human skeleton?
Ans.
The 206 bones in the adult human skeleton are organized into a longitudinal axis i.e. axial
skeleton, to which appendicular skeleton is attached.


Q.28 How many bones are present in axial skeleton? Give detail.
Ans.
Axial skeleton consists of the 80 bones in the head and trunk of body. It is composed of five parts:-
i. Skull contains 22 bones out of which 8 are cranial bones (enclosing the brain) and 14 are facial bones.
ii. There are 6 middle ear ossicles (3 in each ear).
iii. There is also a hyoid bone in neck.
iv. Vertebral column contains 33 bones (vertebrae).
v. The chest is made of a chest bone called sternum and 24 (12 pairs) ribs.


Q.29 How many bones are there in appendicular skeleton?
Ans. i. Appendicular skeleton is composed of 126 bones.
ii. Pectoral (shoulder) girdle is made of 4 bones.
iii. Arms have six (06) bones.
iv. Both hands have 54 bones.
v. Pelvic girdle (hips) has 2 bones.
vi. Legs have 06 bones.
vii. Both feet have 54 bones.


Q.30 Describe upper and lower jaw in mammals and vertebrates?
Ans.
The upper jaw is fixed with skull and is composed of two bones. The lower jaw is mobile and articulates with the skull. In lower vertebrates, the lower jaw is made up of more than one bone while in mammals it is made of single bone.


Q.31 How mammals improve hearing?
Ans.
During evolution, mammals modified the lower jaw bones and incorporated four of them into the middle ear (in the form of malleus and incus in both ears). This adaptation proved beneficial for mammals. Lower jaw with single bone is stronger and the malleus and incus also improve hearing.


Q.32 What is a joint?
Ans.
A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They allow movement and provide mechanical support.


Q.33 At which basis, joints can be classified?
Ans.
Joints can be classified on the basis of degree of movement they allow.


Q.34 What do you know about immoveable or fixed joints?
Ans.
Such joints allow no movements e.g. the joint between the skull bones.


Q.35 What do you know about slightly moveable joints?
Ans.
Such joints allow slight movements e.g. joints between the vertebrae.


Q.36 What do you know about moveable joints?
Ans.
They allow a variety of movements e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint, elbow joint, knee joint etc.


Q.37 What are the main types of moveable joints?
Ans.
The main types of moveable joints are:
(i) Hinge joints
(ii) Ball-and-socket joints


Q.38 Define Hinge joints and give one example.
Ans.
Hinge joints move back and forth like the hinge on a door and allow movements in one plane only.
Example
The knee and elbow are hinge joints.


Q.39 What are ball-and-socket joints?
Ans.
Ball and socket joints allow movement in all directions.
Example:
Hip and Shoulder joints.


Q.40 What would have happened if neck joint were a ball-and-socket joint?
Ans.
Then we can move freely our neck in all directions.


Q.41 What is the role of tendons and Ligaments tissues?
Ans.
Role of Tendons
Tendons are tough bands and attach muscles to bones. When a muscle contracts, tendon exerts a pulling force on the attached bone, which moves as a result.
Role of Ligaments
Ligaments are strong but flexible bands and join one bone to another at joints. They prevent dislocation of bones at joints.


Q.42 Differentiate between origin and insertion of a skeletal muscle.
Ans.
Origin
One end of a skeletal muscle is always attached with some immoveable bone. This end of muscle is called as origin.
Insertion
The other end of muscle which is attached with a moveable bone is called as insertion.


Q.43 What do you know about “Antagonists”?
Ans.
Skeletal muscles are usually in pairs of antagonists. In an antagonistic pair, both muscles do opposite jobs.


Q.44 What is meant by antagonism?
Ans.
When one muscle contracts, the other relaxes and this phenomenon is known as antagonism.

Q.45 What is meant by “Flexor” muscle and Flexion?
Ans. When a muscle contracts and bends a joint, it is known as flexor muscle and the movement is called as flexion. Biceps is an example of flexor muscle.


Q.46 What is meant by extensor muscle and extension?
Ans. When a muscle contracts and straightens the joint, it is known as extensor muscle and the movement is called extension.
Example
Triceps is an example of the extensor muscle.


Q.47 Which point of attachment is pulled when a muscle contracts?
Ans.
When muscle contracts, it pulls the moveable bone (at insertion).


Q.48 Describe briefly about osteoporosis?
Ans.
Osteoporosis is a disorder of skeletal system. It is a bone disease in adults, especially in old people. It is more common in old women. In osteoporosis, there is a decrease in the density of bones due to loss of calcium and phosphorus.


Q.49 What is a function of estrogen?
Ans.
The function of estrogen is to deposit minerals in bones. When the reproductive cycle stops in females, not enough estrogen is secreted.


Q.50 Describe Arthritis. Write the names of its types.
Ans.
Arthritis means “inflammation in joints”. It is also very common in old age and in women.
Symptoms
Pain and stiffness in joints particularly in the weight bearing joints e.g. hip and ankle joints.
Treatment
Pain killer and anti-inflammatory medicines are supposed to decrease the symptoms.
Types
i. Osteo-arthritis
ii. Rheumatoid arthritis
iii. Gout


Q.51 Differentiate between cartilage and bone? (Board, 2013)
Ans.
Cartilage is a dense clear, blue white, firm connective tissues. It is found covering important body parts. e.g., nose, epiglottis, trachea etc. Bones are the hard connective tissue providing movement, support and protection to various body parts.


Q.52 What is the role of skeleton in support and movement?
Ans.
Skeleton provides protection to internal organs e.g. skull protects brain and support to body mass and can move the body by muscles.


Q.53 What are biceps and triceps?
Ans:
Biceps is a flexor muscle on the front of the upper arm bone while Triceps is an extensor muscle on the back of arm.


Q.54 What is chondrocyte?
Ans:
The cells of cartilage are called chondrocyte.


Q.55 What are cranial bones?
Ans:
The bones which enclose the brain are called cranial bones. They are eight in number.


Q.56 What is Gout?
Ans:
It is characterized by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in moveable joints. It generally attacks the toe joints.

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MCQs

1.Find the ball-and-socket joint;
(a) Joint in the finger bones
(b) Joint of neck and skull bones
(c) Joint at elbow
(d) Joint at pelvic girdle and leg bones✅


2.All these are the parts of axial skeleton of humans except:

(a) Ribs
(b) Sternum
(c) Shoulder girdle✅
(d) Vertebral column


3.The disorders in which there is an accumulation of uric acid in joints:
(a) Gout✅
(b) Rheumatoid arthritis
(c) Osteoporosis
(d) Osteoarthritis


4.What is correct about tendons?

(a) Tendons are flexible and they join muscles with bones SJA
(b) Tendons are non-elastic and they join bones with bones
(c) Tendons are non-elastic and they join muscles with bones✅
(d) Tendons are flexible and they join muscles with muscles

5.How many bones make our skúll?
(a) 14
(c) 24
(b) 22✅
(d) 26


6.What are the main components of a bone?
(a) Marrow, spongy bone, wax
(b) Marrow, compact bone, wax
(c) Compact bone and marrow.
(d) Compact bone, spongy bone, marrow✅


7.What do some bones produce?
(a) mucous
(b) hormones
(c) oxygen
(d) blood cells✅

8.How would you define skeletal system?
(a) All the bones in body
(b) All the muscles and tendons
(c) All the body’s organs, both soft and hard tissues.
(d) All the bones in body and the tissues that connect them✅


9.Find the INCORRECT statement:
(a) Bone is where most blood cells are made
(b) Bone serves as a storehouse for various minerals
(c) Bone is a dry and non-living supporting structure✅
(d) Bone protects and supports the body and its organs


10.The purpose of rib cage is to:

(a) Protect the stomach
(b) Protect the spinal cord
(c) Protect the heart and lungs✅
(d) Provide an object to which the lungs can attach


11.There are types of joints.
(a) 2
(c) 4
(b) 3✅
(d) 5


12.The skeletal system outside the body is called;
(a) endoskeleton
(b) exoskeleton✅
(c) normal skeleton
(d) Exoskeleton & Endoskeleton


13.In our body skeleton works very
closely with the system.
(a) Muscular✅
(b) Nervous
(c) Endocrine
(d) All of these


14.Babies are born with about soft bones.
(a) 206
(b) 250
(c) 300✅
(d) 350


15.Vesalius was born in;
(a) Brussels✅
(b) London
(c) Birmingham
(d) Sidney

16.body. is the longest bone in our
(a) Arm
(b) Leg
(c) Thigh✅
(d) Foot


17.body is the smallest bone in our
(a) Thigh
(b)Stapes✅
(c) Ankle
(d) Knee-cap


18.Which joints allow no movement?
(a) Moveable joints
(b) Slightly moveable joints
(c) Immoveable joints✅
(d) None of these


19.Muscles can only;
(a) Contract✅
(c) Expand
(b) Push
(d) All of above


20.Pair of skeletal muscles are called:

(a) Extensor
(b) Flexor
(c) Antagonistic✅
(d) None of these


21.When a muscle contracts, the point of attachment which is pulled is called
(a) Origin
(b) Insertion✅
(c) Origin and Insertion
(d) None


22.When the reproductive cycle stops in female, produced. hormone is less

(a) Androgen
(b) Esterogen✅
(c) Insulin
(d) none of these


23.In gout immoveable joints. is accumulated in

(a) Glucose
(b) urea
(c) Uric acid✅
(d) Ammonia


24.Inflammation of membrane at joints is called;
(a) Osteoarthrits
(b) Rheumatoid arthritis✅
(c) Arthritis
(d) Gout


25.joint move only in one plane.
(a) Ball & socket
(b) Hinge joint✅
(c) Moveable joint
(d) Slightly moveable joints


26.at joints. prevents dislocation of bones
(a) Ligament✅
(b) Tendons
(c) Salts
(d) Joint


27.Bone can store;
(a) Urea
(b) Salts
(c) Uric acid
(d) Minerals✅


28.Cranial bones are;
(a) 8✅
(b) 10
(c) 12
(d) 22


29.Bones which enclose brain are called;
(a) Cranial bones✅
(b) Cervical bones.
(c) Vertebrae
(d) None of above


30.Lacuna is present in the of cartilage.
(a) Bone
(b) Matrix✅
(c) Collagen
(d) Cartilage


31.Disease of bones in which there is a decrease in the density of the bones due to loss of calcium and phosphorus is:
(a) Osteoporosis✅
(b) Osteoarthritis
(c) Rheumatoid arthritis
(d) Gout


32.Which allows movement in all directions:

(a) Shoulder & Knee Joints
(b) Hip & Elbow Joints
(c) Hip & Shoulder Joints✅
(d) Elbow. & Knees Joints


33.The bending of arm at elbow is:
(a) Relaxation
(c) Flexion✅
(b) Contraction
(d) Extension


34.Vertebral Column consists of following number of bones:

(a) 10
(b) 20
(c) 23
(d) 33✅


35.Which one cannot show movement from one place to an other place?
(a) Bacteria
(b) Animals
(c) Plants✅
(d) Human beings


36.Place where two or more bones meet at a point is called

(a) Origin
(b) Joint✅
(c) Insertion
(d) Tendons


37.The muscle of the arm at elbow joint causes straightening of the arm, it is called:
(a) Extension
(b) Extensor✅
(c) Flexion
(d) Flexor


38.Fore limbs are the part of:
(a) Appendicular skeleton✅
(b) Axial skeleton
(c) Exoskeleton
(d) Exoskeleton and Endoskeleton


39.Osteoporosis is due to deficiency of
(a) Carbon
(b) Nitrogen
(c) Calcium✅
(d) Phosphorus


40.The example of slightly moveable joint is:
(a) Joint of elbow
(b) Joint of knee
(c) Joint of shoulder
(d) Joints of vertebral column✅


41.Pain and stiffness in weight bearing joints are symptoms of:

(a) Arthritis✅
(b) Gout
(c) Rheumatoid arthritis
(d) Osteoporosis


42.How many bones are present in right hand.

(a) 56
(b) 43
(c) 28
(d) 27✅


43.Which of the following provides main support to our body mass?

(a) Skull
(b) Body.
(c) Vertebral column✅
(d) Spinal cord


44.How many bones are present in middle ear?
(a) 2
(b) 3✅
(c) 5
(d) 6


45.Fatigue, low grade fever, pain and stiffness in joints are symptoms of:
(a) Arthritis
(b) Osteoarthiritis
(c) Gout
(d) Rheumatoid Arthritis✅


46.Blood vessels do not enter:

(a) Bone
(b) Matrix
(c) Cartilage✅
(d) Lacuna


47.Fibrous cartilage is present in:
(a) Pinna
(b) Nose
(c) Intervertebral discs✅
(d) Epiglottis


48.How many ribs are there in man?
(a) 22
(b) 12
(c) 24✅
(d) 33


49.Movement of an animal as a whole is:

(a) stimulus
(b) response
(c) locomotion✅
(d) movement


50.Mark the False statement about bones:
(a) Contain chondrocytes✅
(b) Ability to store minerals
(c) Contains blood vessels
(d) Hardest connective tissue


51.Which of the following stores minerals?
(a) Bone✅
(b) Cartilage
(c) Cartilage and bone
(d) Joints


52.Pelvic Girdle contains bones:
(a) 33
(b) 02✅
(c) 54
(d) 12


53.Which are tough bands?

(a) Flexors
(b) Ligaments
(c) Tendons✅
(d) Insertions


54.Deposition of uric acid in joints is due to:

(a) Osteoarthritis
(b) Gout✅
(c) Osteoporosis
(d) Rheumatoid Arthritis


55.An example of ball and socket joint is:
(a) Elbow joint
(b) Shoulder joint✅
(c) knee joint
(d) Finger joint

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