Biology class 10thClass Matric Part 2 Notes

10th class biology chapter 11 Homeostasis

10th class biology chapter 11 Homeostasis on Newsongoogle.com by Bilal Article

Shorts and Simple Question & Answers

Q.1 What are the major organs involved in homeostasis in human body? State the role of each organ?
Ans.
Human beings have highly developed organs for homeostasis which are:
(i) Lungs
(ii) Skin
(iii) Kidneys
Lungs remove excess carbon dioxide and keep it in balance. Skin performs role in maintenance of body temperature and also removes excess water and salts. Kidneys filter excess water, salts, urea, uric acid etc. from the blood and form urine.


Q.2 What is Bowman’s capsule?
Ans.
One end of the renal tubule is blind and attains a cup shaped structure called Bowman’s capsule that encloses glomerulus.


Q.3 Define Homeostasis.
Ans.
Homeostasis may be defined as the maintenance of the internal conditions of body in equilibrium, despite changes in the external environment e.g. the core temperature of human body remains at about 37°C despite fluctuations in the surrounding air temperature.


Q.4 Define osmoregulation.
Ans.
It is defined as the maintenance of the amounts of water and salts in body fluids i.e., blood and tissue fluids.


Q.5 Define thermoregulation.
Ans.
The maintenance of internal body temperature is called thermoregulation e.g., human body temperature is kept constant at 37°C..


Q.6 Define Excretion.
Ans.
The process by which metabolic wastes are eliminated from body to maintain the internal conditions at equilibrium is called excretion e.g., urea, salts of uric acid and water are eliminated out of body through excretion.


Q.7 Differentiate between transpiration and Guttation.
Ans
:Transpiration
i. It is defined as loss of water from plants surface in the form of vapours.
ii. It occurs through stomata.
Guttation
i. It is defined as appearance of drops of water on the tips or edges of leaves.
ii. It occurs through special pores called hydathodes present at leaf tips or edges.


Q.8 What are Hydrophytes?
Ans.
Hydrophytes are the plants which live completely or partially submerged in fresh water e.g.
water lilly.


Q.9 What are Xerophytes?
Ans.
Xerophytes live in dry environment e.g. cacti.


Q.10 What are Halophytes?
Ans.
The plants living in sea water and adapted to salty environments are called halophytes e.g.
different sea grasses.


Q.11 What is Hilus?
Ans.
The concave side of kidney faces vertebral column. There is a depression called hilus, near the centre of the concave area of kidney. This is the area of kidney through which ureter leaves kidney and other structures including blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves enter and leave kidney.


Q.12 What are Renal Pyramids?
Ans.
Renal medulla consists of several cone-shaped areas called renal pyramids.


Q.13 What is Renal pelvis?
Ans.
Renal pyramids project into a funnel-shaped cavity called renal pelvis which is the base of ureter.


Q.14 What is renal corpuscle?
Ans.
The part of nephron which is not tubular and has two parts:
(i) Glomerulus
(ii) Bowman’s capsule


Q.15 What is Glomerulus?
Ans.
Glomerulus is a network of capillaries and is enclosed by a cup shaped structure called Bowman’s capscule.


Q.16 Define renal tubule.
Ans.
Tubular part of nephron which starts after Bowman’s capsule is called renal tubule. It is sub divided into following parts:
i. Proximal convoluted tubule
ii. Loop of Henle
iii. Distal convoluted tubule
iv. Collecting duct


Q.17 What do you know about proximal convoluted tubule?
Ans.
First portion of renal tubule is called proximal convoluted tubule.


Q.18 What is Loop of Henle?
Ans.
U-shaped part of renal tubule is called Loop of Henle.


Q.19 What is distal convoluted tubule?
Ans.
Last portion of renal tubule is called distal convoluted tubule.


Q.20 What are collecting ducts?
Ans.
The distal convoluted tubule of many nephrons open in a single collecting duct. Many collecting ducts join together to form several hundred papillary ducts which drain into renal pelvis.


Q.21 What is a nephron?
Ans.
The functional unit of the kidney is called nephron. There are over one million nephrons in each kidney.


Q.22 What is pressure filtration?
Ans.
The first step of urine formation is pressure filtration. When blood enters the kidney via the
renal artery it goes to many arterioles, and then to the glomerulus. The pressure of blood is very high and so most of the water, salts, glucose and urea of the blood is forced out of glomerular capillaries.


Q.23 What do you know about selective reabsorption?
Ans.
It is the second step of urine formation. In this step, about 99% of the glomerular filtrate is re- absorbed into the blood capillaries surrounding renal tubule. It occurs through osmosis, diffusion and active transport.


Q.24 What is the tubular secretion?
Ans.
The third step of urine formation is called tubular secretion. Different ions, creatinine, urea etc. are secreted from blood into the filtrate in renal tubule. This is done to maintain blood at a normal pH
(7.35-7.45).


Q.25 What is lithotripsy.
Ans.
It is the method to remove kidney stones. In this method, non-electrical shock waves from outside are bombarded on the stones in the urinary system. Waves hit the dense stones and break them. Stones become sand like and are passed through urine.


Q.26 Define dialysis.
Ans.
Dialysis means the cleaning of blood by artificial ways by using a dialyzer. It is of two types:
(i) Peritoneal Dialysis
(ii) Haemodialysis


Q.27 What is a dialyzer?
Ans.
In haemodialysis, patient’s blood is pumped though an apparatus called dialyzer. It contains long tube, the walls of which act as semi-permeable membranes. Blood flows through the tubules and during this extra water and wastes move from blood into the dialysis fluid.


Q.28 What is peritoneal dialysis?
Ans.
In this type of dialysis, the dialysis fluid is pumped for a time into the peritoneal cavity which is the space around gut. This cavity is lined by peritoneum. Peritoneum contains blood vessels. When dialysis fluid is placed in peritoneal cavity, waste materials from peritoneal blood vessels diffuse into the dialysis fluid, which is then drained out.


Q.29 What is Haemodialysis?
Ans.
In haemodialysis, patient’s blood is pumped through an apparatus called dialyzer. It contains long tubing which act as semipermeable membrane. Blood flows through the tubes while the dialysis fluid flows around the tubes. Extra water and wastes move from blood into dialysis fluid. The cleaned blood is returned back to the body.


Q.30 What is glomerulus filtrate?
Ans.
In the glomerulus due to high pressure of blood most of the water, salts, glucose and urea of the blood is forced out of glomerular capillaries. This material passes into the Bowman’s capsule and is called glomerular filtrate.


Q.31 What are papillary ducts?
Ans.
Many collecting ducts join together to form several hundred papillary ducts which drain into renal pelvis.

Q.32 What are ureters?
Ans.
Kidneys filter blood to produce urine and the ureters carry urine from kidneys to urinary bladder.


Q.33 What is urethra?
Ans.
Urethra is the tube that carries urine from urinary bladder to the outside of body.


Q.34 What is urinary bladder?
Ans.
Bladder is an organ of urinary system which temporarily stores urine until it is released from body.


Q.35 What is urinary system?
Ans.
Excretory system of human is also called the urinary system. It is composed of:
i. Pair of kidneys
ii. Pair of ureters
iii. Urinary bladder and urethra


Q.36 Why transpiration does not take place at night?
Ans.
At night, transpiration usually does not occur because most plants have their stomata closed.


Q.37 What do you mean by kidney stone?
Ans.
When urine becomes concentrated, crystals of many salts e.g. calcium oxalate, calcium and ammonium phosphate, uric acid etc are formed in it. Such large crystals cannot pass in urine and form hard deposits called kidney stones. Most stones start in kidneys, some may travel to ureter or urinary bladder.


Q.38 What is guttation? How does it differ from dew?
Ans.
Guttation
(a) Definition
The appearance of drops of water on the tips or edges of leaves is called guttation. Guttation is not to be confused with dew, which condenses from the atmosphere on to the plant surface.
(b) Explanation
Some plants such as grasses and strawberry force this water through special pores, present at leaf tips or edges, and form drops.

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MCQs

1.The human urinary system consists of:
(a) Rectum, lungs, kidneys, ureters
(b) Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder
(c) Skin, liver, lungs, kidneys
(d) Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra✅


2.Which organ is responsible for filtering the blood?

(a) Intestine
(b) Brain
(c) Stomach
(d) Kidney✅


3.The tube between kidney and urinary bladder is the:

(a) Ureter✅
(b) Urethra
(c) Renal tubule
(d) Nephron


4.Body balance of water, salts, temperature and glucose is termed as:
(a) Excretion
(b) Tubular secretion
(c) Homeostasis✅
(d) Re-absorption


5.Which is the correct order for the path taken by urine after it leaves the kidneys?
(a) Urethra, bladder, ureters
(b) Bladder, ureters, urethra
(c) Ureters, bladder, urethra✅
(d) Bladder, urethra, ureters


6.What is the function of the ureter?
(a) To store urine
(b) To carry urine from the kidney to the bladder✅
(c) To carry urine out of the body
(d) To remove wastes from the blood


7.What waste products are excreted by kidneys?

(a) Urea, water & salts✅
(b) Salts, water and carbon dioxide
(c) Urea & water
(d) Urea & salts


8.The two main functions of sweat are:
(a) To keep the body cool and to remove excess proteins
(b) To keep the body warm and to filter the blood
(c) To filter the blood and to remove waste products
(d) To remove waste products and to cool the body✅


9.Which would NOT be present in the filtrate entering the Bowman’s capsule of nephron?
(a) Water
(b) Calcium ions
(c) Blood cells✅
(d) Urea


10.During peritoneal dialysis, the waste materials move from:
(a) The abdomen to the dialysis fluid
(b) The dialysis fluid to the peritoneum blood vessels
(c) The peritoneum blood vessels to the dialysis fluid✅
(d) The dialysis fluid to the abdomen


11.Core temperature of human body remains at about:
(a) 35°C
(b) 36°C
(c) 34°C
(d) 37°C✅

12.Calcium oxalate is deposited in the form of crystals in the leaves and stems of:
(a) Pines
(b) Tomatoes✅
(c) Rubber
(d) Keekar


13.Resins are removed by:
(a) Conifers✅
(b) Lady finger
(c) Grasses
(d) Keekar


14.Cacti are examples of:
(a) Hydrophytes
(b) Xerophytes✅
(c) Halophytes
(d) None


15.Organs which work for homeostasis are:
(a) Lungs
(b) Skin
(c) Kidneys
(d) All of the above✅


16.The depression near the centre of concave area of kidney is called:
(a) Cortex
(b) Hilus✅
(c) Medulla
(d) Pyramids


17.U-shaped part of renal tubule is called:
(a) Renal corpuscle
(b) Glomerulus
(c) Loop of Henle✅
(d) Bowman’s capsule


18.Which of following are not filtered through glomerular capillaries:
(a) Blood cells
(b) Proteins
(c) Blood cells and Proteins✅
(d) Urea


19.The typical volume of urine produced by an average adult per day is:
(a) 1 liter
(b) 2 liters
(c) 5 liters
(d) 1.4 liters✅


20.By drinking plenty of water how many stones can be avoided?
(a) 20%
(b) 90%✅
(c) 50%
(d) 30%


21.A method for removing stones in which non-electrical shock waves are bombarded on stones is called:
(a) Lithotripsy✅
(b) Surgery
(c) Dialysis
(d) None


22.Normal pH of blood is maintained at:
(a) 7.35-7.40
(b) 7.35-7.45✅
(c) 7.30-7.40
(d) 7.30-7.45


23.The loss of water in the form of drops from tips of leaf is called:
(a) Excretion
(b) Guttation✅
(c) Transpiration
(d) Evaporation


24.A method for removal of kidney stone is:
(a) Haemodialysis
(b) Peritoneal Dialysis
(c) Lithotripsy✅
(d) Kidney transplant


25.In plants the excess water is removed by:
(a) Respiration
(b) Transpiration
(c) Guttation
(d) Transpiration and Guttation✅


26.The ‘Nephrons’ are mainly made of:
(a) Renal corpuscle
(b) Renal tubule
(c) Renal corpuscle and renal tubule✅
(d) Renal pelvis


27.Which is not the function of kidney?
(a) pH balance
(b) Blood pressure
(c) Composition of blood
(d) Digestion of proteins✅

28.In animals, the excretion of CO₂ takes place by:
(a) Kidneys
(b) Stomach
(c) Lungs✅
(d) Liver


29.Which one is not the part of kidney?
(a) Medulla
(b) Cerebellum✅
(c) Nephrons
(d) Glomerulus


30.Metabolic wastes are eliminated by:

(a) Respriation
(b) Excretion✅
(c) Homeostasis
(d) Nutrition


31.Guttation occurs in:
(a) Pines
(b) Tomatoes
(c) Grasses✅
(d) Lady finger


32.Water is transported by:
(a) Xylem✅
(b) Phloem
(c) Xylem and Phloem
(d) Cambium


33.What is produced during respiration?

(a) CO₂
(b) H₂O
(c) CO2 and H₂O
(d) N₂


34.Rubber plant produces:
(a) Gums
(b) Mucilage
(c) Latex✅
(d) Resins


35.Keekar produces:
(a) Gums
(b) Mucilage
(c) Latex✅
(d) Resins


36.Broad leaves are found in:
(a) Hydrophytes✅
(b) Mesophytes
(c) Xerophytes
(d) Halophytes


37.Succulent organs are found in:
(a) Mesophytes
(b) Hydrophytes
(c) Xerophytes✅
(d) Halophytes


38.Uric acid is removed by:
(a) Skin
(b) Kidneys
(c) Kidneys and Skin✅
(d) Lungs


39.Which creates an insulating blanket of warm air?
(a) Dermis
(b) Lungs
(c) Liver
(d) Goosebumps✅


40.Which encloses glomerulus?
(a) Pyramids
(b) Loop of Henle
(c) Bowman’s capsule✅
(d) Collecting duct


41.Amount of urea in normal chemical composition of urea in urine is:
(a) 9.3 g/l.✅
(b) 1.87 g/l
(c) 1.17 g/l
(d) 0.75 g/l


42.%age of Potassium ions in urine is:
(a) 1.8 g/l
(c) 1.17 g/l✅
(b) 0.75 g/l
(d) 9.3 g/l


43.Which is done at home?
(a) Lithotripsy
(b) Haemodialysis
(c) Peritoneal dialysis✅
(d) Kidney transplant


44.Average life for a donated kidney is:
(a) 8-10 years
(c) 20 years
(b) 5 years
(d) 10-15 years✅


45.Hypotonic urine is formed when water in body fluid is:
(a) Less
(b) Absent
(c) In excess✅
(d) Not filtered


46.%age of water in Urine is:
(a) 90%
(b) 95%✅
(c) 80%
(d) 100%


47.The name of the common mineral salt present in sweat is
(a) Calcium nitrate
(b) Sodium chloride✅
(c) Potassium chloride
(d) Iron phosphate

48.In kidney the formation of urine occurs in steps?
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3✅
(d) 4


49.Arterial blood dialysis is also called:

(a) Lithotripsy
(b) X-rays
(c) Haemodialysis✅
(d) Kidney transplant


50.The category of the plants that has adaptations of small and thick leaves to limit water loss is called:
(a) Hydrophytes
(c) Xerophytes✅
(b) Mesophytes
(d) Hygrophytes


51.Who wrote an encyclopedia “Al Tasrif”?
(a) Abu Nasr-al-Farabi
(b) Abu al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi✅
(c) Bu Ali Sina
(d) Darwin


52.Mucilage is secreted in:
(a) Carnivorous plants
(b) Lady finger
(c) Carnivorous plants and Lady finger✅
(d) Keekar


53.The plants which live in sea water and are adapted to salty environments are called:
(a) Halophytes✅
(b) Hydrophytes
(c) Xerophytes
(d) Halophytes and Hydrophytes


54.Excretion is also a process of:
(a) Respiration
(b) Co-ordination
(c) Homeostasis✅
(d) Breathing


55.Despite eating a meal rich in carbohydrates, the blood glucose level remains about:
(a) 1 g per liter✅
(b) 2 g per liter
(c) 3 g per liter
(d) 4 g per liter


56.Approximate weight of a Kidney is:
(a) 10 grams
(b) 15 grams
(c) 20 grams
(d) 27 grams✅


57.The length of each Kidney is:
(a) 10 cm✅
(b) 15 cm
(c) 20 cm
(d) 30 cm


58.Secretions secreted called:
(a) Resins✅
(b) Gums
(c) Later
(d) Mucilage

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