2nd Year NotesComputer class 12th

Computer Science 12 Chapter 1 DATA BASICS

Short Questions Notes

Q 1. What is data?

Ans. Raw facts and figures are called data. It is used to perform certain
operations in an organization. It gives the status of past activities. Data may
be numerical like inventory figures, test scores, etc. Data may be non
numerical like your name and address.

Q 2. What is information?

Ans. Processed data is called information. It is usually output of a process
and is meaningful. The grade of a student in a particular subject in a
semester precisely gives the complete information of the performance of a

Q 3. What is the difference between data and information?

Ans. Data is raw facts whereas information is processed form of data. Data
is given to the computer for input and information is received from the
computer in the form of output.

Q 4. Define data processing.

Ans. Data processing is any computer process that converts data into
information or knowledge. The processing is usually assumed to be
automated an running on a computer. It can also be defined “The
manipulation of data to achieve some required objective is called data

Q 5. What is data manipulation?

Ans. Applying different operations on data is called data manipulation. This
operation include classification, calculation, sorting, and summarizing.

Q 6. Define field?

Ans. Each column of a table in relational database is called a field. It
represents the attributes of the entity. In table it is represented as a column

Q 7. Define record.

Ans. A collection of related fields treated as a single unit is called record. If
we collect different attributes of a student then it will be called student

Q8. Define file.

Ans: A file is a collection of related records treated as a single unit. For example, if you gather students’ records, it becomes a student file.

Q9. Name file types from a usage perspective.

Ans: Types of files from a usage perspective include master files, transaction files, and backup files.

Q10. Name file types from a function perspective.

Ans: Types of files from a function perspective are program files and data files.

Q11. What is a program file?

Ans: A program file contains software instructions. It includes source files and executable files.

Q12. What is file organization?

Ans: File organization refers to how records in a file are physically arranged on secondary storage devices. Various methods exist, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.

Q13. Name different types of file organization.

Ans: Different types of file organization include sequential files, direct or random access files, and indexed sequential files.

Q14. What are sequential files?

Ans: In sequential files, records are stored one after another in sequence. They are less efficient for storing data quickly but offer portability. However, you can only access data sequentially.

Q15. What are direct or random access files?

Ans: Direct or random access files allow direct access to records without going through the preceding ones. This method is more efficient for quickly accessing data.

Q16. What are indexed sequential files?

Ans: Indexed sequential files allow both sequential and random access based on a key value. Records are stored as key-pointer pairs, requiring more disk space than random files. However, their processing speed is as fast as random files.

Q17. What is an index?

Ans: A database index is a data structure that enhances the speed of operations on a database table. It’s created by developers or a Database Administrator (DBA) and contains key attributes for rapid random lookups and efficient ordered record access.

Q18. Define a database.

Ans: A database is a structured collection of records or data stored in a computer. Programs use it to answer queries, turning retrieved records into information for decision-making. A database management system (DBMS) manipulates the data.

Q19. What is a database management system?

Ans: A database management system is a set of programs that store, modify, and extract information from a database. Various types exist, from small systems on personal computers to large systems on mainframes, serving organizations with different file types.

Q20. What is a data dictionary?

Ans: A data dictionary is a file used by a DBMS to store data definitions and database structure information. It includes details like name, type, value range, source, and access authorization for each data element.

Q21. What do you mean by consistency constraint?

Ans: Consistency constraints are rules that must be followed when entering data into a database. For example, the name field should not contain numerical values, and the date of birth field should contain a valid date.

Q22. What is meant by data independence?

Ans: Data independence means that data and application programs are separated. The physical implementation of data is hidden from application programs. The Database Management System (DBMS) acts as an intermediary between application programs and the database.

Q23. Name some large databases developed.

Ans: Well-known large databases include NADRA, Google, VISA, and Amazon’s books database, which are widely recognized worldwide.

Q24. Write down any two disadvantages of a database system.

Ans: Disadvantages of a database system include the need for additional training, higher hardware costs, and increased software costs.

Q25. What are the activities performed on data?

Ans: Users of a database typically have several actions they can perform, such as adding new files to the database, removing existing files, inserting new data, retrieving data, updating data in existing files, and deleting data from existing files.

Q26. Name the four major components of a database system.

Ans: The four major components of a database system are:

  1. Data: Raw facts that become information after processing.
  2. Hardware: The physical components of the system, including I/O devices, primary and secondary storage devices, I/O channels, and processors.
  3. Software: Various programs, including user and system software.
  4. Users: The individuals or entities that interact with the database system.

Q1. Fill in the blanks

  1. DBMS stands for Database Management System.
  2. A record is a collection of related fields.
  3. A file is a collection of related records.
  4. Before processing the data is recorded in transaction files.
  5. A database is a collection of logically related data.
  6. The data definitions are stored in data dictionary.
  7. SQL stands for Structured Query Language.
  8. Hierarchical data model has the general shape of an organizational chart.
  9. Data is a collection of facts, figures and statistics.
  10. Processed data is called information.

Q2. Select the correct option

1: Which of the following represents a collection of concepts that are used to
describe the structure of a database?

a) Data warehouse
b) Data structure
c) Data model
d) Data type

2: Which of the following data model is more flexible?
a) Network data model
b) Hierarchical data model
c) Relational data model
d) Object data model

3: Which of the following type of file require largest processing time?

a) Sequential file
b) Random file
c) Indexed sequential file
d) Direct access file

4: Which of the following may be a temporary file?
a) Master file
b) Transaction file
c) Backup file
d) None of these

5: SQL is a(n)
a) Unstructured Language
b) Structured language
c) Object oriented language
d) Software

6: A collection of raw facts and figures is called:
a) Data

b) Information
c) Database
d) Data capturing

  1. Which of the following is not related to data manipulation?
    a) Summarizing
    b) Data capturing
    c) Classifying
    d) Calculations
  2.  represents an object:
    a) Person
    b) Organization
    c) An event
    d) All of these
  3. The manipulated and processed data is called:
    (a) Raw data
    (b) Information
    (c) Object
    (d) None of these
  4. A series of actions that are performed on raw data achieve the required objective
    and results are called:

    (a) Operation
    (b) Data processing
    (c) Processes
    (d) Both (a) and (b)
  5. In activity data is collected and recorded:
    (a) Data capturing

    (b) Data Manipulating
    (c) Managing result
    (d) None of these
  6. In a school the record of cricket and hockey team organized into two groups is
    referred as

    a) Classifying
    b) Summarizing
    c) Sorting
    d) Searching
  7. A set of related characters that represent a unit of data is called
    a) File
    b) Record
    c) Field
    d) Database
  8. A set of related fields that represent a unit of data is called
    a) File
    b) Record
    c) Field
    d) Database
  9. A set of related records that represent a unit of data is called
    a) File✅
    b) Record
    c) Field
    d) Database
  1. A set of related files that represent a unit of data is called
    a) File
    b) Record
    c) Field
    d) Database
  2. Which of the following refers to the correctness and consistency of data?
    a) Data Independence
    b) Data Integration
    c) Data Integrity
    d) Data Structure
  3. Which of the following database model has the shape like and organizational

    a) Network Model
    b) Hierarchical Model
    c) Relational Model
    d) Data Model
  4. In a college, organizing the record of Science and Arts students into two groups,
    this activity is referred to as

    (a) Sorting
    (b) Summarizing
    (c) Classifying
    (d) None of these
  5. The process of arranging data in a proper order is called:
    (a) Sorting

    (b) Summarizing
    (c) Classifying
    (d) Data capturing
  6. Storage and retrieval of data is related to:
    (a) Data capturing
    (b) Data Manipulation
    (c) Managing output result
    (d) None of these
  7. The process of making duplicate copies of output result is called:
    (a) Storage and retrieval
    (b) Reproduction
    (c) backup copy
    (d) Data processing
  8. is related to managing output result:
    (a) Storage and retrieval
    (b) Communications
    (c) Reproduction
    (d) All of these
  9. Communicating the information through internet is related to:
    (a) Managing output result

    (b) Data capturing
    (c) Data Manipulation
    (d) None of these
  10. The term “inverted tree” is used in
    a) Network Model
    b) Hierarchical Model
    c) Relational Model
    d) None of above
  1. The separation of the data structure of database from the application program is

    a) Data Independence
    b) Data Integration
    c) Data Integrity
    d) Data Model
  2. Which of the following data models is the most commonly used.
    a) Hierarchical Model
    b) Network Model
    c) Relational Model
    d) None of above
  3. Which of the following is a computerized record keeping system?
    a) Data system
    b) Database
    c) File System
    d) DBMS
  4. DBA Stands for
    a) Data Business Adminstrator
    b) Database Administrator
    c) Data Basic Applicaiton
    d) Database Application
  5. Which of the following are the components of DBMS?
    a) Hardware
    b) Software
    c) Personnel
    d) All of above
  6. Which of the following contain data definitions?
    a) Data Dictionary

    b) Database
    c) Database Integrity
    d) All of above
  7. Which of the following is a query language?
    a) DBMS
    b) Utilities
    c) Report
    d) SQL
  8. The name of person represents:
    (a) Field

    (b) Record
    (c) File
    (d) None of these
  9. A complete information about a particular entity represents a:
    (a) Field
    (b) Record✅
    (c) File
    (d) None of these
  10. Each column in a table represents a:
    (a) Field✅
    (b) Record
    (c) File
    (d) None of these
  1. Each row of a table represents a:
    (a) Field
    (b) Record
    (c) File
    (d) None of these
  2. A table with related records is referred to as:
    (a) Field
    (b) Record
    (c) File
    (d) None of these
  3. The process of making the copy of original is called
    a) Storage
    b) Retrieval
    c) Backup
    d) None of above
  4. Arrangement of data in a particular order is
    a) Searching
    b) Sorting
    c) Storing
    d) Summarizing
  5. The file extension of a program file is
    a) EXE
    b) Com
    c) prog
    d) both a and b
  6. Which is not true about data
    a) Facts
    b) Figures
    c) Meaningful
    d) Cannot be used for decision making
  7. Using information managers can create
    a) Useful Reports
    b) Graphs
    c) Statistics
    d) All of Above
  8. To convert data into information we need some
    a) Input
    b) Output
    c) Processing
    d) All of Above
  9. Which one refers data capturing
    a) Getting Data

    b) Calculation
    c) Placing
    d) Sorting
  10. Reproduction refers to
    (a) Making Data Readable
    (b) Making Data Clear
    (c) Making Data Presentable
    (d) Making Data Duplicate
  11. Which one is not a file type with reference to usage point of view
    (a) Transaction File
    (b) Master File
    (c) Program File✅
    (d) Backup File
  1. Which one is a file type with reference to usage point of view
    (a) Transaction File

    (b) Data File
    (c) Program File
    (d) Sequential File
  2.  is also called data set:
    (a) Field
    (b) Record
    (c) File✅
    (d) All
  3.  contains only one type of data:
    (a) Field

    (b) Record
    (c) File
    (d) Database
  4.  files contains information that remains constant over a long period of
    (a) Master file✅
    (b) Backup file
    (c) Transaction file
    (d) None of these
  5.  files type is used to update data in master file:
    (a) Backup file
    (b) Transaction file✅
    (c) Sequential file
    (d) Data file
  6. A file that is used to keep a copy of important data is called:
    (a) Master file
    (b) Transaction file
    (c) Backup file✅
    (d) Data file
  7. The data can be recovered in case of loss by using?
    (a) Master file
    (b) Program file
    (c) Backup file✅
    (d) Data file
  8.  file type is executable file and contains the set of program’s
    (a) Backup file
    (b) Program file✅
    (c) Master file
    (d) Data file
  9.  may be a temporary file:
    (a) Master file
    (b) Transaction file✅
    (c) Backup file
    (d) None of these
  10. Which file contains the data prior to the stage of processing
    (a) Data File
    (b) Transaction File✅
    (c) Program File
    (d) Backup File
  11. The Latest update files are
    (a) Data File
    (b) Transaction File
    (c) Master File✅
    (d) Backup File
  12. Program files contain
    (a) Data about program
    (b) Instructions✅
    (c) Data about Transactions
    (d) Records
  13. In which type of file key fields are stored separately
    (a) Program File
    (b) Indexed Sequential File✅
    (c) Sequential File
    (d) Random File
  14. Hardware refers to the
    (a) Database Components
    (b) Logical Components
    (c) Data Components
    (d) Physical Components
  15. Collection of programs used to manage database
    (a) Database System
    (b) DBMS✅
    (c) Data System
    (d) Database Manager
  16. Which one is not advanced capability of DBMS
    (a) Online
    (b) Ad-hoc Reporting
    (c) Backup / Recover
    (d) Speed
  17. The extension of a file created in Notepad is:
    (a) .doc
    (b) .txt✅
    (c) .exe
    (d) .pad
  18. Database file has a file extension:
    (a) .xls
    (b) .txt
    (c) .mdb✅
    (d) .mpg
  19. Which of the following file extensions represents the image file?
    (a) .gif
    (b) .jpg
    (c) .bmp
    (d) All of these
  20. The techniques used to write and retrieve data to and from the storage devices are

    (a) Storage Methods
    (b) Access Methods✅
    (c) None of these
    (d) Index Methods
  21. Which files organization uses the magnetic storage media?
    (a) Direct
    (b) Random
    (c) Indexed Sequential
    (d) Sequential
  22.  files requires largest processing time:
    (a) Sequential file✅
    (b) Random file
    (c) Indexed sequential files
    (d) Direct access file
  23. Multiple copies of the same data is referred to as:
    (a) Data integrity
    (b) Data Redundancy✅
    (c) Data inconsistency
    (d) Both (a) and (b)
  24. Which one is not the feature of DBMS
    (a) Utilities
    (b) Storage✅
    (c) Data Dictionary
    (d) Report Generator
  25. Which one is not an SQL statement
    (a) CREATE
    (b) INSERT
    (c) GET✅
    (d) SELECT
  26.  problems occurs in traditional file system:
    (a) Data Redundancy
    (b) Data inconsistency
    (c) Data security
    (d) All of these
  27. A collection of logically related data is called.
    (a) Record
    (b) Data file
    (c) Database✅
    (d) None of these
  28. A collection of data that include name, address, NIC number, phone number etc.
    of an employee represents:

    (a) Data base
    (b) Field
    (c) Data set
    (d) Record
  29.  refers to the correctness and consistency of data:
    (a) Data independence
    (b) Data integration
    (c) Data integrity✅
    (d) Data model
  30.  identifies the data items to be stored into database and the relationships
    between them:
    (a) Data independence
    (b) Data integration
    (c) Data integrity
    (d) Data model
  31.  represents a collection of concepts that are used to describe the
    structure of a databas:
    (a) Data warehouse
    (b) Data model✅
    (c) Data structure
    (d) Data type
  32.  data base models has the shape like an organization chart:
    (a) Network Model
    (b) Relational Model
    (c) Hierarchical Model✅
    (d) None of these
  33. The term “inverted tree” is used in:
    (a) Network Model
    (b) Relational Model
    (c) Hierarchical Model✅
    (d) None of these
  34. In  data base models, a complex diagram may be used to represent the
    structure of database:
    (a) Network Model✅
    (b) Relational Model
    (c) Hierarchical Model
    (d) None the these
  35.  data base models is commonly used today:
    (a) Network Model
    (b) Relational Model✅
    (c) Hierarchical Model
    (d) None of these
  36.  database models has no physical connections between entities:
    (a) Network Model
    (b) Relational Model✅
    (c) Hierarchical Model
    (d) None of these

[Ch#1] Data Basics 36 Computer Science Part-II

  1.  is the component of DBMS:
    (a) Data
    (b) Hardware
    (c) Software
    (d) All of these
  2.  is related to personnel, a component of DBMS:
    (a) Application Programmer
    (b) End users
    (c) Database Administrator
    (d) All of these
  3.  contains data definitions used in the database:
    (a) Utilities
    (b) Data Dictionary✅
    (c) Database integrity
    (d) All of these
  4. The printed or onscreen display of data or information in the database is called:
    (a) Entity
    (b) Report✅
    (c) Query
    (d) Screen
  5. The type of files from functional point of view may include:
    (a) Program file✅
    (b) Backup file
    (c) Transaction file
    (d) None of these
  6. The type of files from storage point of view may include:
    (a) Transaction file
    (b) Sequential file✅
    (c) Backup file
    (d) Data file
  7. Video file has a file extension:
    (a) .avi
    (b) .wav
    (c) .mpg
    (d) both (a) & (c)
  8. Audio file has a file extension:
    (a) .avi
    (b) .wav✅
    (c) .mid
    (d) both (b) & (c)
  9. .doc represents:
    (a) File name✅
    (b) File extension
    (c) File type
    (d) None of these
  10. The objectives of database may include:
    (a) data integration
    (b) data independence
    (c) data integrity
    (d) All of these

[Ch#1] Data Basics 37 Computer Science Part-II

  1. The objectives of database system or DBMS may include:
    (a) Database integrity
    (b) Availability
    (c) Evolveability
    (d) All of these
  2.  is handled by database system or DBMS:
    (a) Data security
    (b) Data independence
    (c) Data integrity
    (d) All of these
  3. DBMS stands for
    (a) Databasics Methodology System
    (b) Database Managerial System
    (c) Database Management System✅
    (d) None of Above
  4.  is the feature of DBMS:
    (a) Data dictionary
    (b) Backup & Recovery
    (c) Query language
    (d) All of these

Q3. Write T for true and F for false statement

  1. Data can only be processed through computers. (F)
  2. The traditional file system approach has many advantages over DBMS. (F)
  3. Data dictionary is used to view the meanings of database terminology. (F)
  4. Master file is the latest updated file which never becomes empty, ever since it is
    created. (T)
  5. SQL is used to retrieve information from the database based on certain criteria.(T)
  6. The Network Data Model is more popular and widely used than Relational Data
    Model. (F)
  7. Indexed sequential files can be processed sequentially as well as randomly. (T)
  8. Backup files store data prior to its processing. (F)
  9. Microsoft ACCESS is a relational database management system. (T)
  10. A report generator is used to produce a printed document from the database. (T)

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