2nd Year NotesBiology class 12th

2nd year Biology guess paper

2nd year Biology guess paper on Newsongoogle.com by Bilal Articles

Explore essential 2nd year Biology guess paper curated by Bilal Articles on Newongoogle.com. Elevate your understanding of key Biology concepts with comprehensive and insightful queries, ensuring a solid foundation for academic success. Dive into engaging content designed to enhance your learning experience and excel in your Biology studies. Discover a valuable resource for students seeking effective preparation and mastery of 2nd Biology topics at Newongoogle.com by Bilal Article

Chapter 15

Important Short questions
1. Define homeostasis with examples.
2. What are heat shock proteins?
3. What is hypertonic and hypotonic environment and what changes occur in cell in this environment?
4. Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
5. Differentiate between active flight and passive flight.
6. Differentiate between shivering thermogenesis and non-shivering thermogenesis.
7. Define endotherms, ectotherms and heterotherms.
8. Write four adaptations of xerophytes and hydrophytes and mesophytes.
9. Differentiate between fibres and sclereides.
10. Differentiate between afferent and efferent arterioles.
11. Define lithotripsy.
12. What is haemodialysis? Give its importance.
13. What is foramen triosium? How is it formed?
14. What is renal failure?
15. Differentiate between ureotelic and urecotelic animals.
16. Define anhydrobiosis with an example.
17. What is hyproxaluria?
18. Differentiate between photonasty and thermonasty.
19. Define phototactic and chemotactic movements with examples.

Important Long Questions

1. Discuss excretion in Plants.
2. Discuss Kidney disorders with treatment.
3. Discuss the role of liver as an excretory organ.
4. Discuss the system of thermoregulation in mammals.

Chapter 16

Important Short Questions
1. Differentiate between bone and cartilage.
2. Name the unpaired facial bones.
3. Differentiate between epical, lateral and intercalary meristems.
4. What is blastoderm? Name its layers.
5. What is hematoma formation?
6. How callus is formed?
7. What is a synovial joint?
8. Give composition of exoskeleton in molluscs and arthropods.
9. Differentiate between hyaline and fibro cartilage.
10. What is sciatica and its causes?
11. Differentiate between effective and recovery strokes?
12. What is non-disjunction? Give its effects.
13. What is rickets? Give its causes and treatment.
14. Differentiate between tendons and ligaments.
15. What are the internal factors which affect the process of growth?
16. What is secondary growth? Give its importance.
17. What are brnachialis and branchioradialis?

Important Long Questions

1. What is endoskeleton? Describe bone and cartilage.
2. Describe the significance of secondary growth in plants. Phases of plants growth.
3. Give a detailed note on sliding filament model.
4. Explain the main parts of axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton.
5. Explain different types of joints.

Chapter 17

Important Short Questions
1. What are effectors? Give their types.
2. Name only types of innate behaviour.
3. Differentiate between neurula and neurocoel.
4. Define primary organizer and primary induction.
5. Draw and label sensory neuron.
6. Define reflex arc.
7. Differentiate between nerves and ganglia.
8. What is salutatory impulse?
9. What is effects of nicotine on coordination?
10. What is chlorosis?
11. What is a hormone? List its type.
12. Define habituation with an example.
13. Give functions of parathyroid gland and adrenal gland.
14. What is Alzheimer’s disease?

Important Long Questions

1. Nervous system of hydra is better developed than that of planaria. Discuss.
2. Explain the structure and functions of human brain with diagram.
3. Write a note on adrenal gland.
4. How nerve impulse is produced? Explain its mechanism with diagram?

Chapter 18

Important Short Questions
1. Differentiate between sexual and asexual reproduction.
2. Define parthenocarpy. Give examples.
3. What is seed dormancy? Give its importance.
4. What is photoperiodism? Give its effects on plants.
5. Define vernalisation. Write its two advantages.
6. Define tissue culture and cloning with examples.
7. Differentiate between identical and fraternal twins.
8. Differentiate between oviparous and viviparous.
9. Define menstrual cycle, oestrous cycle and menopause.
10. What is diploid parthenogenesis?
11. What is structure and function of corpus leuteum?
12. Name STDs with their relative causative agents.
13. Define apormixis.
14. Defined haploid and diploid parthenogenesis?
15. What is ovulation?

Important Long Questions

1. Explain the female menstrual cycle.
2. Explain the male reproductive system of man.
3. Compare asexual reproduction with sexual reproduction.
4. Elaborate the functions of placenta during pregnancy.

Chapter 19

Important Short Questions
1. Differentiate between growth and development.
2. Differentiate between epical, lateral and intercalary meristems.
3. Write three signs of aging.
4. Give two causes of abnormal development.
5. What is blastoderm? Name its layers.
6. What are the internal factors which affect the process of growth.
7. What is discoidal cleavage.
8. Differentiate between neurula and neurocoel.
9. What is organogenesis?
10. Define regeneration with example.
11. What is meristem ?
12. What do you know about open growth?
13. Differentiate between morulla and blastolua stage in the development of chick.
14. What is basic difference between chick and amphibian embryo?
15. Define correlation?
16. Define hypoblast and epiblast?
17. Describe the role of cytoplasm in development?
18. What is meant by differentiation?

Important Long Questions

1. Write a note on development of chick.
2. Describe the signs and causes of abnormal development.
3. Explain internal and external factors of growth.
4. Explain the phases of growth in plants.

Chapter 20

Important Short Questions
1. Define recombinant DNA. Role of lambda phage.
2. What is anticodon?
3. What is karyotype?
4. Write 3 major classes of RNA
5. What is mutation?
6. Where does DNA replication start on the DNA molecule?
7. Define transformation process?
8. Define chromosomes and nucleosome?
9. Define semi-conservative replication?
10. Explain sex limited traits.
11. What is phosphodiester linkage?
12. Write the main component of DNA.
13. Define point mutation and chromosomal aberration.
14. What are Okazaki fragments? Give their length.
15. Differentiate between transcription and translation?

Important Long Questions

1. Describe DNA as Hereditary material in details?
2. Explain the works of Meselson and Stahi in DNA study.
3. What are chromosomes? What do you know about their types.
4. Explain Watson and Crick model of DNA.

Chapter 21

Important Short Questions
1. What is non-disjunction? Give its effects?
2. Define cell cycle. Give its phases.
3. How cytokinesis occur in animals and plants
4. What is mitotic apparatus? Give its functions.
5. Explain homologous and analogous organs.
6. Give importance of mitosis/meiosis.
7. What is metastasis? Write its importance.
8. Differentiate between apoptosis and necrosis.
9. Write the symptoms and causes of Down’s syndrome?
10. What is Turner’s syndrome? Give its causes and feature.
11. Define crossing over.
12. What is meant by G0 phase?
13. How prophase of meiosis differ from that of mitosis?
14. What is chiasmata?
15. What is interphase? Why is it called resting phase?

Chapter 22

Important Short Questions
1. Define euchromatin.
2. What is cretinism?
3. Describe gonorrhoea.
4. What is transformation?
5. What is allele and gene and gene pool and gene frequency?
6. What is over dominance and co-dominance?
7. What is genetic drift? Genetic code. Fixed alleles.
8. Name any four animals declared extinct in Pakistan.
9. Define homozygous and heterozygous alleles.
10. What is Epistasis? What is Bombay Phenotype? Dominance?
11. Differentiate between genotype and phenotype.
12. What is totipotency and totipotent cell?
13. What is true breeding variety?
14. What is meant by MODY?

Important Long Questions

1. Explain epistasis with an example of Bombay phenotype.
2. Define and explain Mendel’s Law of segregation.
3. What is incomplete dominance? Explain with an example.
4. Explain the phenomenon of gene linkage regarding linkage groups.

Chapter 23

Important Short Questions
1. Define biotechnology. Give its applications.
2. Differentiate between molecular scissors and molecular vectors.
3. Give two requirement to produce recombinant DNA.
4. Explain and give examples of ex vivo and in vivo gene therapies in humans.
5. What are transgenic plants?
6. Give three possible ways to get the gene of interest.
7. Give two goals of human genome project.
8. What is probe? Give its uses.
9. Define genomic library.

Chapter 24

Important Short Questions
1. How artificial selection is different from natural selection.
2. State theory of special creation.
3. Name any four animals declared extinct in Pakistan.
4. Define neo Darwinism/modern synthesis?
5. Define population genetics.
6. What are hydrothermal vents? How do they support life?
7. What are vestigial organs? Name some important vestigial organs of man.
8. Define fossils? How do they provide evidence of evolution?
9. What are endangered and threatened species? Give some examples.
10. What is Hardy-Weinberg theorem? Give its equation.
11. Differentiate between homologous and analogous organs.
12. State endosymbiont hypothesis.

Important Long Questions

1. Discuss evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes.
2. Describe the evidences of evolution various branches of biology like biogeography and fossil study.
3. Explain Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

Chapter 25

Important Short Questions
1. Write down the types of living organisms found in limnetic zone.
2. Differentiate between climate and weather.
3. Define renewable and non renewable resources.
4. Define ecosystem, biosphere and biome.
5. Differentiate between population and community with examples.
6. Differentiate between synecology and autecology.
7. What is predation? Give its significance.
8. Define parasitism and commensalism.
9. Define food chain and food web.
10. Differentiate between habitat and niche.
11. Differentiate between consumers and decomposers.
12. Differentiate between hydrosere and xerosere.
13. Differentiate between primary succession and secondary succession.

Important long questions

1. Write a note on nitrogen cycle.
2. Explain the biotic components of an ecosystem.
3. Explain xerosere succession stages.
4. Explain the flow of energy in a food chain.

Chapter 27

Important Short Questions
1. Define deforestation and afforestation.
2. What is ozone layer? Give its important function in environment.
3. Define water pollution and acid rain.
4. Write a brief note on non-renewable energy resources.
5. Explain causes and effects of ozone depletion.
6. Give main causes/sources of water pollution.
7. What is solid waste? Give its importance.
8. Define greenhouse effect. Give its effects on environment.
9. Trees as environmental buffers.

Important long questions

1. Describe deforestation and its effects.
2. Write a note on: a)ozone depletion b)greenhouse effect
3. Explain the importance of forests/trees
4. Briefly explain and causes and effects of air pollution.

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