1st year biology Chapter 6 The Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera) Question an Answers
Short and Simple Question an Answer
Q1: What are cynobacteria?
Ans: Cynobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria which were previously known as blue green algae and they true prokaryotes.
Q2: What are photosynthetic bacteria?
Ans: Bacteria which synthesize organic compounds by using light energy are called as photosynthetic bacteria.
Q3: What are parasitic bacteria?
Ans: Bacteria which grow inside the tissues of other living organisms and obtain food by harming their host are called parasitic bacteria.
Q4: What are saprophytic bacteria?
Ans: Bacteria which get their food from dead organic matter are known as saprophytic bacteria.
Q5: What is plasmid?
Ans: It is the small circular, double stranded DNA molecule and self replicating present in many bacteria.
Q6: What are akinets?
Ans: Akinets are non motile asexual spores formed during unfavourable conditions.
Q7: what are pili?
Ans: Pili are fine, hollow, filament like structures and not used for the locomotion but help in the conjugation of bacteria.
Q8: What are mesosomes?
Ans: The plasma membrane of bacterial cell is folded inward to form a special structure called mesosomes.
Q9: What does Atrichous mean?
Ans: Atricous means bacteria without flagella.
Q10: What is meant by binary fission?
Ans: It is the process of asexual reproduction present bacteria.
Q11: What are obligate aerobes?
Ans: Bacteria which only can survive in the presence of oxygen are known as obligate aerobes.
Q12: What are heterocysts?
Ans: In the filament of Nostoc some larger, yellowish, thick walled cells are present called heterocysts which are also take part in the reproduction and nitrogen fixation.
Q13: What is coenobium?
Ans: In Nostoc when filaments are intermixed in a gelatinous mass forming a ball like structure called coenobium.
Q14: What is transduction?
Ans: It is the type of genetic recombination in which one bacterial genetic material is transferred into cell through bacteriophage.
Q15: What are hormogonia?
Ans: The filament of Nostoc breaks up into many pieces called hormogonia and each hormogonium grows into a new filament.
Q16: What is genetic recombination?
Ans: The combination of genetic material from two different sources is called genetic recombination.
Q17: What are antibiotics?
Ans: These are the chemical substances which are used to kill micro-organisms that cause infection diseases.
Q18: What is immunity?
Ans: The resistance against the infection by pathogenic organisms is called immunity.
Q19: What are chemosynthetic bacteria?
Ans: Bacteria which get energy by the oxidaticen and reduction process of various inorganic compounds such as nitrates, sulphur, ammonia etc are known as chemosynthetic bacteria.
Q20: How many shapes of bacteria?
Ans: There are four shapes of bacteria.
Q21: Do any other microbial groups besides bacteria have prokaryotic cell?
Ans: Cynobacteria or blue green algae are also having prokaryotic cell.
Q22: How bacteria are classified as gram positive and gram negative?
Ans: Certain bacteria are stained with a violet or bluish colour are said to gram positive where other bacteria do not stained with violet dye are known gram negative bacteria.
Q23: How conjugation takes place in bacteria?
Ans: The genetic material of one bacterial cell is transferred into another bacterial cell through a tube
known as conjugating tube, the process is known as conjugation.
Q24: Why bacteria are called symbiotic?
Ans: Some bacteria are called as symbiotic because they form an association with other living organism and they get their food without harming them.
Q25: Why obligate anaerobic bacteria die in the presence of oxygen?
Ans: Obligate anaerobic bacteria die in the presence of oxygen because they respire without oxygen.
Q26: Bacteria are prokaryotes therefore chloroplast must not be present in their cell then how photosynthetic bacteria synthesize there food?
Ans: These bacteria have same pigments similar to chlorophyll and their pigments dispersed in the cytoplasm. Through these pigments photosynthetic bacteria synthesize their food.
Q27: How elementary canal bacteria are useful?
Ans: These bacteria are present in intestine of living organism and help in the digestion of cellulose, by an enzyme cellulase.
Q28: How Nostoc and Anabana are useful in the field of agriculture?
Ans: They are used as nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture to improve soil fertility.
Q29: If conditions are not favourable than how Nostoc would reproduce?
Ans: They would produce non motile spores from vegetative cells are known as akinets.
Q30: How bacteria are helpful to clean the world?
Ans: Some bacteria decompose the dead organisms into simpler compounds in this way they help to clean the world.
Q31: How cell walls of archaeobacteria are different from other groups?
Ans: Most groups of bacteria contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls where peptidoglycan is absent in the cell walls of archaeobacteria.
Q32: How bacteria would reproduce in unfavourable conditions?
Ans: Bacteria would reproduce through endospore formation in unfavourable conditions.
Q33: how pili are different from flagella?
Ans: Pili are fine, thin, and smaller then flagella and they do not help in the locomotion
Q34: Mitochondria are absent in bacterial cell then how respiration takes place?
Ans: Plasma membrane of bacteria contains enzymes for respiration process and it acts as mitochondria.
Q35: Why centroplasm is called as central body in Nostoc?
Ans: Centroplasm is called as central body because heredity material is present in it due to the absence of nuclear material in it.