1st Year NotesBiology class 11th

1st year biology Chapter 6 The Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera)

1st year biology Chapter 6 The Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera) Question an Answers

Short and Simple Question an Answer

Q1: What are cynobacteria?

Ans: Cynobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria which were previously known as blue green algae and they true prokaryotes.

Q2: What are photosynthetic bacteria?

Ans: Bacteria which synthesize organic compounds by using light energy are called as photosynthetic bacteria.

Q3: What are parasitic bacteria?

Ans: Bacteria which grow inside the tissues of other living organisms and obtain food by harming their host are called parasitic bacteria.

Q4: What are saprophytic bacteria?

Ans: Bacteria which get their food from dead organic matter are known as saprophytic bacteria.

Q5: What is plasmid?

Ans: It is the small circular, double stranded DNA molecule and self replicating present in many bacteria.

Q6: What are akinets?

Ans: Akinets are non motile asexual spores formed during unfavourable conditions.

Q7: what are pili?

Ans: Pili are fine, hollow, filament like structures and not used for the locomotion but help in the conjugation of bacteria.

Q8: What are mesosomes?

Ans: The plasma membrane of bacterial cell is folded inward to form a special structure called mesosomes.

Q9: What does Atrichous mean?

Ans: Atricous means bacteria without flagella.

Q10: What is meant by binary fission?

Ans: It is the process of asexual reproduction present bacteria.

Q11: What are obligate aerobes?

Ans: Bacteria which only can survive in the presence of oxygen are known as obligate aerobes.

Q12: What are heterocysts?

Ans: In the filament of Nostoc some larger, yellowish, thick walled cells are present called heterocysts which are also take part in the reproduction and nitrogen fixation.

Q13: What is coenobium?

Ans: In Nostoc when filaments are intermixed in a gelatinous mass forming a ball like structure called coenobium.

Q14: What is transduction?

Ans: It is the type of genetic recombination in which one bacterial genetic material is transferred into cell through bacteriophage.

Q15: What are hormogonia?

Ans: The filament of Nostoc breaks up into many pieces called hormogonia and each hormogonium grows into a new filament.

Q16: What is genetic recombination?
Ans:
The combination of genetic material from two different sources is called genetic recombination.

Q17: What are antibiotics?

Ans: These are the chemical substances which are used to kill micro-organisms that cause infection diseases.

Q18: What is immunity?

Ans: The resistance against the infection by pathogenic organisms is called immunity.

Q19: What are chemosynthetic bacteria?

Ans: Bacteria which get energy by the oxidaticen and reduction process of various inorganic compounds such as nitrates, sulphur, ammonia etc are known as chemosynthetic bacteria.

Q20: How many shapes of bacteria?

Ans: There are four shapes of bacteria.

Q21: Do any other microbial groups besides bacteria have prokaryotic cell?

Ans: Cynobacteria or blue green algae are also having prokaryotic cell.

Q22: How bacteria are classified as gram positive and gram negative?

Ans: Certain bacteria are stained with a violet or bluish colour are said to gram positive where other bacteria do not stained with violet dye are known gram negative bacteria.

Q23: How conjugation takes place in bacteria?

Ans: The genetic material of one bacterial cell is transferred into another bacterial cell through a tube
known as conjugating tube, the process is known as conjugation.

Q24: Why bacteria are called symbiotic?

Ans: Some bacteria are called as symbiotic because they form an association with other living organism and they get their food without harming them.

Q25: Why obligate anaerobic bacteria die in the presence of oxygen?

Ans: Obligate anaerobic bacteria die in the presence of oxygen because they respire without oxygen.

Q26: Bacteria are prokaryotes therefore chloroplast must not be present in their cell then how photosynthetic bacteria synthesize there food?

Ans: These bacteria have same pigments similar to chlorophyll and their pigments dispersed in the cytoplasm. Through these pigments photosynthetic bacteria synthesize their food.

Q27: How elementary canal bacteria are useful?

Ans: These bacteria are present in intestine of living organism and help in the digestion of cellulose, by an enzyme cellulase.

Q28: How Nostoc and Anabana are useful in the field of agriculture?

Ans: They are used as nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture to improve soil fertility.

Q29: If conditions are not favourable than how Nostoc would reproduce?

Ans: They would produce non motile spores from vegetative cells are known as akinets.

Q30: How bacteria are helpful to clean the world?

Ans: Some bacteria decompose the dead organisms into simpler compounds in this way they help to clean the world.

Q31: How cell walls of archaeobacteria are different from other groups?

Ans: Most groups of bacteria contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls where peptidoglycan is absent in the cell walls of archaeobacteria.

Q32: How bacteria would reproduce in unfavourable conditions?

Ans: Bacteria would reproduce through endospore formation in unfavourable conditions.

Q33: how pili are different from flagella?

Ans: Pili are fine, thin, and smaller then flagella and they do not help in the locomotion

Q34: Mitochondria are absent in bacterial cell then how respiration takes place?

Ans: Plasma membrane of bacteria contains enzymes for respiration process and it acts as mitochondria.

Q35: Why centroplasm is called as central body in Nostoc?

Ans: Centroplasm is called as central body because heredity material is present in it due to the absence of nuclear material in it.

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