Chemistry class 10thClass Matric Part 2 Notes

Class 10th Chemistry Unit 14 Question And Answer

Class 10th Chemistry Unit 14 Question And Answer On Newsongoogle By Bilal Articles

Explore in-depth solutions to Class 10th Chemistry Unit 14 questions on Newsongoogle, presented by Bilal Articles. Enhance your understanding of Unit 14 with comprehensive question-and-answer resources to excel in your studies.

Q1. Write composition of dry air.

Ans: The Composition of dry air, as: Nitrogen 78.09% Oxygen 20.94% Argon 0.93% Carbon dioxide 0.03%

Q2. What is the difference between primary and secondary pollution.

Ans: Primary pollutants: Primary pollutants are the waste or exhaust products driven out because of combustion of fossil fuels and organic matter. These are: oxides of Sulphur (SO₂ and SO3) oxides of carbon (CO and CO₂) oxides of nitrogen (especially nitric oxide NO) hydrocarbon (CH) Ammonia and compounds of fluorine. Secondary pollutants: Secondary pollutants are produced by various reactions of primary pollutants. These are: Sulphuric acid, Nitric acid, Hydrofluoric acid, Ozone Peroxy-acetyl nitrate (PAN)

Q3. What are the sources of CO, and CO?

Ans: The main sources of CO, and CO as: Both of these gases are emitted du No volcanic eruption and decomposition of organic 45 matter naturally. The major source for the emission of these gases is combustion of fossil fuel (coal, petroleum and natural gas). Fossil fuels burnt in combustion engine of any type of automobile, kiln of any industry, or open air fires emit CO and CO. Forest fires and burning of wood also emit CO: and CO. Especially, when supply of oxygen is limited, emission of CO dominates.

Q4. Why converters should be used in automobile exhausts?

Ans: Converters should be used in automobile exhaust so that they convert CO to CO, and oxides of nitrogen NO to N: before it enters in air

Q5. Write importance of CO; to life on earth.

Ans: CO, is the “life gas for plants. CO, absorbs infrared radiations emitted by the Earth. Although CO, is negligible as compared to N, and O, yet its heat retaining capacity is tremendous. Without CO₂ life on earth would have been impossible 97 Write occurrence of Sulphur compounds in the atmosphere. Ans: Naturally occurring sulphur-containing compounds are emitted in the bacterial decay of organic matter, in volcanic gases and forest fires. But the concentration of sulphur-containing compounds in the atmosphere because of natural sources is very small as compared to the concentration of those compounds emitted by fossil fuel combustion in automobiles and industrial units. About 80% of the total S*O_{2} is released by the combustion of coal and petroleum products.

Q6. How S*O_{2} and S*O_{3} are formed? How these gases cause air pollution?

Ans: Fossil fuels contain Sulphur Fossil fuels are burned to produce energy The sulphur in the fuel forms oxides of sulphur. S*O_{2} and S*O_{S} \rightarrow Oxides of sulphur escape into the air. They are air pollutants Oxides of sulphur dissolve in water and form Acid Rain. That falls on the earth.

Q7. What are the effects of SO, gas? Also writes its properties/characteristics.

Ans: It cause suffocation, irritation S*O_{2} forms sulphuric acid which damages building and vegetations. S*Q_{2} is a colorless gas having irritating smell.

Q 8. How to control pollution because of sulphur?

Ans: To control pollution because of S*O_{2} It is necessary to remove sulphur from fossil fuels before they are burnt

Q9. How nitric oxide is produced in air?

Ans: Naturally occurring oxides of nitrogen, mainly nitric oxide (NO), is produced by the electrical lightening in air

Q10. How nitric oxide is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels?

Ans: Combustion of fossil fuels in internal combustion engine in thermal power stations and factories where huge amount of coal is is burnt, burnt, NO is formed by the direct combination of nitrogen and oxygen Q13. How nitric oxide reacts with oxygen? Ans: Nitric oxide quickly reacts with air to form nitrogen dioxide. NO is highly toxic gas.

Q11. How NO and N*O_{2} are formed? How these gases causes air pollution.

Ans: Nitrogen in the air is normally un-reactive At high temperature it reacts with oxygen to form oxides of nitrogen. NO & NO: These gases escape into the air. They are pollutants → Oxides of nitrogen dissolve in water and form Acid Rain, That falls on the carth

Q12. How the mixture of NO and N*O_{1} gases are represented? Write their effects.

Ans : Mixture of these gases represented as NO, enter in chimneys of thermal power factories. It the air through automobile exhaust and irritates breathing passage This oxide form nitric acid combining with water vapours in air, Nanc acid is a component of acid rain which

Q 13. What is meant by Ozone? Where do ozone layers exist in the atmosphere?

Ans: Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen. O₂ represents it, Ozone is present throughout the atmosphere. But its maximum concentration called the ozone layer lies in the stratosphere region about 25 to 30 km away from the Earth’s surface.

Q 14. How ozone layer protects our earth?

Ans: Ozone layer surrounds the globe and protects Earth like a shield from harmful ultraviolet radiation of sunlight, otherwise ultraviolet radiations would cause skin cancer. Thus, ozone layer is stratosphere is beneficial for life on Earth.

Q 15. How the concentration of ozone in stratosphere remains nearly constant?

Ans: Under normal condition ozone concentration in stratosphere remains nearly constant through series of complex atmospheric reactions. Two reactions that maintain a balance in ozon

Q 16. What is meant by incineration?

Ans: Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the burning of solid waste at high temperature between 650°C to 1100°C in incinerators

Q 17. What is the function of incinerator?

Ans: Incinerators reduce the solid mass of the original waste by 80-85% and convert the waste materials into ash, flue gas and heat. Although, the volume of solid waste is reduced effectively by incineration, it produces highly poisonous gases and toxic ash.

Q 18. Write composition of flue gas.

Ans: The flue gas includes dioxins, furans, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrochloric acid and a large amount of particulate matter.

Q 19. What is meant by filtration?

Ans: Filtration is separation of insoluble solid particles (sand, clay, dust or precipitates) from a liquid. It is carried out by filtering a mixture

Q 20. What is the difference between pollutant and contaminants?

Ans: The pollutants are those substances which cause pollution, While contaminants are those substance that make something impure.

Q 21. What is meant by air pollution? Write its effects.

Ans: The harmful substances present in air are called air pollutants. Even a beneficial substance beyond a specific concentration may be harmful. Air pollutants change the weather, badly affects human health, damage the plants and destroy buildings the

Q22. What do you mean by atmosphere?

Ans: Our planet Earth has four natural systems, lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere So, atmosphere is the natural system of our our planet Earth It can be defined as Atmosphere is the envelope of different gases around the Earth It extends continuously from the Earth’s surface outwards without any boundary

Q 23. Name the major constituents of atmosphere is maintained?

Ans: The major constituents of troposphere are as follows: (a) Nitrogen (b) Oxygen These two gases comprises 99% by volume of the Earth’s atmosphere

Q 24. How the temperature of atmosphere is maintained?

Ans: C*O_{2} and water vapours are pre present in atmosphere. Yet these are in low concentration but play an important role in maintaining temperature of atmosphere, Because both these gases allow visible light to pass through but absorb infrared radiations emitted by the Earth surface. So, temperature of atmosphere is maintained.

Q 25. Where the ozone layer exists?

Ans: Ozone layer exist in mid stratosphere.

Q26. Why the temperature of upper stratosphere is higher?

Ans: Because ozone in the upper layer absorbs high, energy ultraviolet radiations from the sun, it raises the temperature of stratosphere. That is the reason temperature of upper stratosphere is higher

Q27. What do you mean by an air pollutant?

Ans: The harmful substances present in air are called air pollutants. For example, Carbon monoxide CO

Q28. Name three primary air pollutants.

Ans:(1) Hydrocarbon (CH) (ii) Ammonia (NH) (iii) Oxides of nitrogen (N*O_{2}) Q34. Identify as primary or secondary air pollutant S*O_{2} C H + HNO3, N*H_{3} S*O_{L} Ans: Primary Pollutant: NH: CH. S*O_{2} Secondary Pollutant: HNO, H_{2}*S*O_{2} Ozone

Q29. Why the CO is dangerous for earth.

Ans: CO is an air pollutant. It is a health hazard being a highly poisonous gas. Being colorless and odorless its presence cannot be noticed easily and readily. When inhaled, it binds with the hemoglobin more strongly than that of oxygen. Thus, hindering the supply of oxygen in the body Exposure to higher concentrations of CO causes headaches and fatigue. If whaled for a longer time it results in breathing difficulties and ultimately death. It is the reason burning is not allowed in closed places, it is advised to switch off coal or gas heaters, cooking ranges, etc., before going to sleep.

Q 30. How sulphur containing compounds are emitted naturally?

Ans: Naturally occurring sulphur containing compounds are emitted in the bacterial decay of organic matter, in volcanic gases any forest fires.

Q 31. How combustion of fossil fuels in internal combustion engine produces oxides of nitrogen.

Ans: Combustion of fossil fuels in internal combustion engines, in thermal power stations and factories where huge amount of coal is burnt, NO is formed by the direct combination of nitrogen and oxygen.

Q32. How acid rain is produced?

Ans: Acid rain means presence of excessive acids in rain water. This rain is produced when normal rain water dissolved oxides of sulphur and nitrogen in air. Rain water converts SO, into H₂SO, and NO to HNO2 and HNO3. These acids reduces the pH of rain water upto 4. Thus, acid rain formed on dissolving acidic air pollutant such as SO, and NO: in rain water

Q 33. Why acid rain damages buildings?

Ans: Acid rain attacks the calcium carbonate present in the marble and limestone of buildings and monuments. Thus, these buildings are getting dull and eroded day by day.

Q34. How aquatic life is affected by acid rain?

Ans: Acid rain on soil and rocks leaches heavy metals (Al, He, Pb, Cr, etc.) with, it and discharges these metals into rivers and lakes. This water is used by human beings for drinking purpose. These metals accumulate in human body to a toxic level. On the other hand, aquatic life present in lakes also suffers because of high concentration metals Especially high concentration ration of aluminum metal clogs the fish gills. It causes suffocation and ultimately death of fish sam go

Q 35. Why plants are dying day by day? Discuss

Ans: Acid rain directly damages the leaves of trees and plants, thus limiting their growth. Depending upon the severity of the damage, plants growth can be hampered Plants ability to bear cold or diseases reduce to get it die.

Q36. Justify, ozone is beneficial for human beings.

Ans: Ozone is present throughout the atmosphere. But is maximum concentration called ozone layer lies in stratosphere region about 25 to 30 km away from the Earth’s surface. This layer surrounds the globe and protects Farth like a shield from harmful ultraviolet radiations of sunlight. Otherwise ultraviolet radiations would cause skin cancer. Thus, ozone layer in stratosphere is beneficial for life on the carth

Q 37. What do you mean by ozone hole?

Ans: The region in which ozone layer depletes is called ozone hole. A single chlorine free radical released by the decomposition of CFCs is capable of destroying upto many lacs of ozone molecules.

Q 38. Where the ozone layer is found?

Ans: Ozone layer lies in stratosphere region and formed by the associates of an oxygen atom with an oxygen molecule in the mid of stratosphere.

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