Chemistry class 10thClass Matric Part 2 Notes

Class 10th Chemistry Important Questions

Class 10th Chemistry Important Questions On Newsongoogle By Bilal Articles

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Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations Important Questions with Answers

Multiple Choice Type Questions

Q1. Which of the following gases is used to store fat and oil-containing foods for a long time?

Carbon dioxide
Q2. The chemical reaction between Hydrogen sulfide and iodine to give Hydrogen iodide and sulfur is given below:

Short Answer Type Questions

Q1. Write the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions and identify the type of reaction in each case.

(a )Nitrogen gas is treated with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst at 773K to form ammonia gas.

(b )Sodium hydroxide solution is treated with acetic acid to form sodium acetate and water.

(c ) Ethanol is warmed with ethanoic acid to form ethyl acetate in the presence of concentrated H2SO4.

(d) Ethene is burnt in the presence of oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water, releasing heat and light.
Q2. Write the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions and identify the type of reaction in each case.
(a ) In the thermite reaction, iron (III) oxide reacts with aluminum, giving molten iron and aluminum oxide.
(b ) Magnesium ribbon is burnt in an atmosphere of nitrogen gas to form solid magnesium nitride.
(c ) Chlorine gas is passed in an aqueous potassium iodide solution to form a potassium chloride solution and solid iodine.
(d ) Ethanol is burnt in the air to form carbon dioxide and water, releasing heat.
Q3. Complete the missing components/variables given as x and y in the following reactions
Q4. Which among the following changes are exothermic or endothermic?
(a) Decomposition of ferrous sulfate
(b) Dilution of sulphuric acid
(c) Dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water
(d) Dissolution of ammonium chloride in water
Q5. Identify the reducing agent in the following reactions
Q6. Identify the oxidizing agent (oxidant) in the following reactions
Q7. Write the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions
(a ) Sodium carbonate in reaction with hydrochloric acid in equal molar concentrations gives sodium chloride and sodium hydrogen carbonate.
(b ) Sodium hydrogen carbonate in reaction with hydrochloric acid gives sodium chloride, and water and liberates carbon dioxide.
(c ) On treatment with potassium iodide, copper sulfate precipitates cuprous iodide (Cu2I2), liberates iodine gas, and forms potassium sulfate.
Q8. A solution of potassium chloride, when mixed with silver nitrate solution, an insoluble white substance is formed. Write the chemical reaction involved and also mention the type of the chemical reaction.
Q9. Ferrous sulfate decomposes with the evolution of a gas having a characteristic dour of burning sulfur. Write the chemical reaction involved and identify the type of reaction.
Q10. Why do fireflies glow at night?
Q11. Grapes hanging on the plant do not ferment, but after being plucked from the plant can be
fermented. Under what conditions do these grapes ferment? Is it a chemical or a physical change?
Q12. Which among the following are physical or chemical changes?
(a ) Evaporation of petrol
(b ) Burning of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
(c ) Heating of an iron rod to red hot.
(d ) Curdling of milk
(e ) Sublimation of solid ammonium chloride
Q13. We made the following observations during the reaction of some metals with dilute hydrochloric acid.
(a) Silver metal does not show any change
(b) The temperature of the reaction mixture rises when aluminum (Al) is added.
(c) The sodium metal reaction is highly explosive.
(d) Some gas bubbles are seen when lead (Pb) is reacted with the acid.
Q14. A substance X, an oxide of a group 2 element, is used intensively in the cement industry. This element is present in bones also. On treatment with water, it forms a solution that turns red litmus blue. Identify X and also write the chemical reactions involved.
Q15. Write a balanced chemical equation for each following reaction and classify
(a ) Lead acetate solution is treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to form lead chloride and acetic acid solution.
(b ) A piece of sodium metal is added to absolute ethanol to form sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas.
(c ) Iron (III) oxide on heating with carbon monoxide gas reacts to form solid iron and liberates carbon dioxide gas.
(d ) Hydrogen sulfide gas reacts with oxygen gas to form solid sulfur and liquid water
Q16. Why do we store silver chloride in dark-colored bottles?
Q17. Balance the following chemical equations and identify the type of chemical reaction.
Q18. A magnesium ribbon is burnt in oxygen to give a white compound X accompanied by light emission. If the burning ribbon is placed in an atmosphere of nitrogen, it continues to burn and forms a compound Y.
(a) Write the chemical formulae of X and Y.
(b) Write a balanced chemical equation when X is dissolved in water.
Q19. Zinc liberates hydrogen gas when reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid, whereas copper does not. Explain why?
Q20. A silver article generally turns black when kept in the open for a few days. The article, when rubbed with toothpaste again, starts shining.
(a ) Why do silver articles turn black when kept in the open for a few days? Name the phenomenon involved.
(b ) Name the black substance formed and give its chemical formula.

Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 2 – Acids, Bases and Salts Important Questions

Matching Type Questions

Q1. Match the acids given in Column (A) with their correct source given in Column (B)
Column A Column B
Lactic acid Tomato
Acetic acid Lemon
Citric acid Vinegar
Oxalic acid Curd
Q2. Match the important chemicals given in Column (A) with the chemical formulae given in Column (B).
Column A Column B
Lactic acid Tomato
Acetic acid Lemon
Citric acid Vinegar
Oxalic acid Curd

Short Questions

Q1. What will be the action of the following substances on litmus paper?
Dry HCI gas
Moistened NH3 gas
Lemon juice
Carbonated soft drinks
Soap solution
Q2. Name the acid present in an ant sting and give its chemical formula. Also, give a common method to get relief from the discomfort caused by the ant sting.
Q3. What happens when nitric acid is added to the eggshells?
Q4. A student prepared solutions of (i) an acid and (ii) a base in two separate beakers. She forgot to label the solutions, and litmus paper was not available in the laboratory. Since both the solutions are colorless, how will she distinguish between the two?
Q5. How would you distinguish between baking powder and washing soda by heating?
Q6. Salt A commonly used in bakery products on heating gets converted into another salt B, which is used to remove the hardness of water, and a gas C is evolved. The gas C, when passed through lime water, turns it milky. Identify A, B, and C.
Q7. In one of the industrial processes used to manufacture sodium hydroxide, a gas X is formed as a byproduct. The gas X reacts with lime water to give a compound Y used as a bleaching agent in the chemical industry. Identify X and Y giving the chemical equation of the reactions involved.
Q8. Fill in the missing data in the following table.
S.No. Name of the salt Formula Salt obtained from
Base Acid

  1. Ammonium chloride NH4Cl NH4OH –
  2. Copper sulphate – – H2SO4
  3. Sodium chloride NaCl NaOH –
  4. Magnesium nitrate Mg(NO3)2 – HNO3
  5. Potassium sulphate K2SO4 – –
  6. Calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 Ca(OH)2 –
    Q9. What are strong and weak acids? In the following list of acids, separate strong acids from weak acids. Hydrochloric acid, citric acid, acetic acid, nitric acid, formic acid, sulphuric acid.
    Q10. When zinc metal is treated with a dilute solution of a strong acid, a gas is evolved, which is utilized in the hydrogenation of oil. Name the gas evolved. Write the chemical equation of the reaction involved and also write a test to detect the gas formed.

Long Questions

Q1. In the following schematic diagram for the preparation of hydrogen gas as shown in Figure 2.3, what would happen if the following changes are made?
(a ) In place of zinc granules, the same amount of zinc dust is taken in the test tube

(b ) Instead of dilute sulphuric acid, dilute hydrochloric acid is taken

(c ) In place of zinc, copper turnings are taken

(d ) Sodium hydroxide is taken in place of dilute sulphuric acid and the tube is heated.
Q2. For making cake, baking powder is taken. If your mother uses baking soda instead of baking powder in cake at home,

(a ) How will it affect the taste of the cake and why?

(b ) How can baking soda be converted into baking powder?

(c ) What is the role of tartaric acid added to baking soda?
Q3. A metal carbonate X reacting with acid gives a gas that gives the carbonate back when passed through a solution Y. On the other hand, a gas G obtained at the anode during electrolysis of brine is passed on dry Y, it gives a compound Z, used for disinfecting drinking water. Identity X, Y, G, and Z.
Q4. A dry pellet of a common base B absorbs moisture and turns sticky when kept open. The compound is also a by-product of the chloralkali process. Identify B. What type of reaction occurs when B is treated with an acidic oxide? Write a balanced chemical equation for one such solution.
Q5. A sulfate salt of the Group 2 element of the Periodic Table is a white, soft substance, which can be molded into different shapes by making its dough. When this compound is left open for some time, it becomes a solid mass and cannot be used for molding purposes. Identify the sulfate salt and why it shows such behavior. Give the reaction involved.
Q6. Identify the compound X based on the reactions given below. Also, write the name and chemical formulae of A, B, and C.

Class 10 Chapter 3 Metals and Non-Metals Important Questions

Q1. Iqbal treated a lustrous, divalent element M with sodium hydroxide. He observed the formation of bubbles in the reaction mixture. He made the same observations when this element was treated with hydrochloric acid. Suggest how can he identify the produced gas. Write chemical equations for both reactions.
Q2. During the extraction of metals, electrolytic refining is used to obtain pure metals.
(a ) Which material will be used as anode and cathode for refining silver metal in this process?
(b ) Suggest a suitable electrolyte also.
(c ) Where do we get pure silver in this electrolytic cell after passing an electric current?
Q3. Why should the metal sulfides and carbonates be converted to metal oxides in the extraction process of metal?
Q4. Generally, when metals are treated with mineral acids, hydrogen gas is liberated, but when metals (except Mn and Mg) are treated with HNO3, hydrogen is not liberated. Why?
Q5. Compound X and aluminum are used to join railway tracks.
(a ) Identify the compound X.
(b ) Name the reaction.
(c ) Write down its reaction.
Q6. When a metal X is treated with cold water, it gives a basic salt Y with the molecular formula XOH (Molecular mass = 40) and liberates a gas Z which easily catches fire. Identify X, Y, and Z and also write the reaction involved.
Q7. A non-metal X exists in two different forms, Y and Z. Y is the hardest natural substance, whereas Z is a good conductor of electricity. Identify X, Y, and Z.
Q8. The following reaction takes place when the aluminum powder is heated with MnO2
Q9. What are the constituents of solder alloy? Which property of solder makes it suitable for welding electrical wires?
Q10. A metal A, which is used in the thermite process, when heated with oxygen, gives an oxide B, which is amphoteric. Identify A and B. Write down the reactions of oxide B with HI and NaOH.
Q11. A metal that exists as a liquid at room temperature is obtained by heating its sulfide in the presence of air. Identify the metal and its ore and give the reaction involved.
Q12. Give the formulae of the stable binary compounds that would be formed by the combination of the following pairs of elements.

(a ) Mg and N2

(b ) Li and O2

(c ) Al and Cl2

(d ) K and O2
Q13. What happens when

(a) ZnCO3 is heated without oxygen?

(b) A mixture of Cu2O and Cu2S is heated?
Q14. A non-metal A is an important constituent of our food and forms two oxides, B and C. Oxide B is toxic. In contrast, C causes global warming

(a) Identify A, B, and C

(b) To which Group of the Periodic Table does A belong?

Give two examples of the metals that are good conductors and poor conductors of heat, respectively.
Q17. Name one metal and one non-metal that exist in the liquid state at room temperature. Also, name two metals having a melting point of less than 310 K (37°C)
Q18. An element A reacts with water to form compound B used in whitewashing. The compound B on heating forms an oxide C which gives back B on treatment with water. Identify A, B, and C and give the reactions involved.
Q19. An alkali metal A gives a compound B (molecular mass = 40) on reacting with water. The compound B gives a soluble compound C on treatment with aluminum oxide. Identify A, B, and C and give the reaction involved.
Q20. Give the reaction involved during the extraction of zinc from its ore by

(a ) Roasting of zinc ore

(b ) Calcination of zinc ore
Q21. A metal M does not liberate hydrogen from acids but reacts with oxygen to give a black color product. Identify M and black-colored products and explain M’s reaction with oxygen.
Q22. An element forms an oxide A2O3 which is acidic. Identify A as metal or non-metal.
Q23. We kept a solution of CuSO4 in an iron pot. After a few days, the iron pot was found to have several holes in it. Explain the reason in terms of reactivity. Write the equation of the reaction involved.

Long Questions

Q1. A non-metal A, the largest constituent of air, when heated with H2 in a 1:3 ratio in the presence of a catalyst (Fe), gives a gas B. On heating with Oz, it gives an oxide C. If this oxide is passed into the water in the presence of air, it gives an acid D which acts as a strong oxidizing agent.

(a) Identify A, B, C, and D

(b) To which group of periodic tables does this non-metal belong?
Q2. Give the steps involved in extracting low and medium-reactivity metals from their respective sulfide ores.
Q3. Explain the following

(a ) Reactivity of Al decreases if it is dipped in HNO3

(b ) Carbon cannot reduce the oxides of Na or Mg

(c ) NaCl is not a conductor of electricity in the solid state, whereas it does conduct electricity in an aqueous solution as well as in the molten state

(d ) Iron articles are galvanized.

(e ) Metals like Na, K, Ca, and Mg are never found in their free state in nature.
Q4. (i) Given below are the steps for extraction of copper from its ore.

Write the reaction involved.

(a) Roasting of copper (1) sulfide

(b) Reduction of copper (1) oxide with copper (1) sulfide.

(c) Electrolytic refining.
Q5. Of the three metals, X, Y, and Z. X react with cold water, Y with hot water, and Z with steam. Identify X, Y, and Z and also arrange them in order of increasing reactivity.
Q6. Element A burns with a golden flame in the air. It reacts with another element B, atomic number 17, to give a product C. An aqueous solution of product C on electrolysis gives a compound D and liberates hydrogen. Identify A, B, C, and D. Also, write down the equations for the reactions involved.
Q7. Two ores A and B were taken. On heating, ore A gives CO, whereas ore B gives SO2. What steps will you take to convert them into metals?

Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds Important Questions

Multiple Choice Type Questions

Q1. C3H8 belongs to the homologous series of

(a ) Alkynes
(b ) Alkenes
(c ) Alkanes
(d ) Cycloalkanes
Q2. Which of the following will undergo an additional reaction?

(a ) CH4

(b ) C3H8

(c ) C2H6

(d ) C2H4
Q3. In a diamond, each carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms to form
(a ) A hexagonal array
(b ) A rigid three-dimensional structure
(c ) A structure in the shape of a football
(d ) A structure of a ring
Q4. The allotrope of carbon which is a good conductor of heat and electricity is
(a ) Diamond
(b ) Graphite
(c ) Charcoal
(d ) None of these
Q5. How many double bonds are there in a saturated hydrocarbon?
(a ) One
(b ) Two
(c ) Three
(d ) Zero

Short Questions

Q1. Draw the structural formula of ethyne.
Q2. Write the names of the following compounds.
Q3. Identify and name the functional groups present in the following compounds.
Q4. A compound X is formed by the reaction of carboxylic acid C2H4O2 and alcohol in the presence of a few drops of H2SO4. The alcohol on oxidation with alkaline KMnO4 followed by acidification gives the same carboxylic acid as used in this reaction. Give the names and structures of (a) carboxylic acid, (b) alcohol, and (c) compound X. Also, write the reaction.
Q5. Why are detergents better cleansing agents than soaps? Explain.
Q6. Name the functional groups present in the following compounds
(d ) CH3CH2OH
Q7. How is ethene prepared from ethanol? Give the reaction involved in it.
Q8. Intake of a small quantity of methanol can be lethal. Comment.
Q9. Gas is evolved when ethanol reacts with sodium. Name the gas evolved and write the balanced chemical equation of the reaction involved.
Q10. Ethene is formed when ethanol at 443 K is heated with excess concentrated sulphuric acid. What is the role of sulphuric acid in this reaction? Write the balanced chemical equation of this reaction.
Q11. Carbon, the Group (14) element in the Periodic Table, is known to form compounds with many elements. Write an example of a compound formed with
(a ) Chlorine (Group 17 of the periodic table)
(b ) Oxygen (Group 16 of the periodic table)
Q12. Crosses or dots in the electron dot structure represent the valence shell electrons.
(a) The atomic number of chlorine is 17. Write its electronic configuration
Q13. Catenation is the ability of an atom to form bonds with other atoms of the same element. Both carbon and silicon exhibit it. Compare the ability of catenation of the two elements. Give reasons.
Q16. Write the structural formulae of all the isomers of hexane.
Q17. What is the role of metal or reagents written on arrows in the given chemical reactions?

Long Questions

Q1. A salt X is formed, and gas is evolved when ethanoic acid reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate. Name the salt X and the gas evolved. Describe an activity and draw a diagram of the apparatus to prove that the evolved gas is the one you have named. Also, write a chemical equation of the reaction involved.
Q2. (a ) What are hydrocarbons? Give examples.
(b ) Give the structural differences between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with two examples each.
(c ) What is a functional group? Give examples of four different functional groups.
Q3. Name the reaction which is commonly used in the conversion of vegetable oils to fats. Explain the reaction involved in detail.
Q4. (a ) Write the formula and draw the electron dot structure of carbon tetrachloride.
(b ) What is saponification? Write the reaction involved in this process.
Q5. Esters are sweet-smelling substances and are used in making perfumes. Suggest some activity and reaction in preparing an ester with a well-labeled diagram.
Q6. A compound C (molecular formula, C2H4O2) reacts with Na – metal to form a compound R and evolves into a gas that burns with a pop sound. Compound C on treatment with alcohol A in the presence of an acid forms a sweet-smelling compound S (molecular formula, C3H6O2). In addition to NaOH to C, it also gives R and water. S on treatment with NaOH solution gives back R and A. Identify C, R, A, and S and write down the reactions involved.
Q8. How would you bring about the following conversions? Name the process and write the reaction.
(a) Ethanol to Ethene.
(b) Propanol to Propanoic acid.
Q9. Draw the possible isomers of the compound with the molecular formula C3H6O and give their electron dot structures.
Q10. Explain the given reactions with the examples

(a) Hydrogenation reaction
(b) Oxidation reaction
(c) Substitution reaction
(d) Saponification reaction
(e) Combustion reaction
Q11. An organic compound A on heating with concentrated H2SO4 forms a compound B which on the addition of one mole of hydrogen in the presence of Ni forms compound C. One mole of compound C on combustion forms two moles of CO2 and 3 moles of H2O. Identify the compounds A, B, and C and write the chemical equations of the reactions involved.

Chapter 5 Periodic Classification of Elements Important Questions

Short Questions

Q1. The three elements A, B, and C with similar properties have atomic masses X, Y, and Z, respectively. The mass of Y is approximately equal to the average mass of X and Z. What is such an arrangement of elements called? Give one example of such a set of elements.
Q2. Elements have been arranged in the following sequence based on their increasing atomic masses.
F, Na, Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, Ar, K.
(a) Pick two sets of elements with similar properties.
(b) The given sequence represents which law of classification of elements?
Q3. Can the following groups of elements be classified as Dobereiner’s triad?
(a) Na, Si, CI
(b) Be, Mg, Ca
Atomic mass of Be 9; Na 23; Mg 24; Si 28; C| 35; Ca 40
Explain by giving a suitable reason.
Q4. In Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, the elements were arranged in the increasing order of their atomic masses. However, cobalt with an atomic mass of 58.93 amu was placed before nickel, having an atomic mass of 58.71 amu. Give a reason for the same.
Q5. Hydrogen occupies a unique position in the Modern Periodic Table”. Justify the statement.
Q6. Write the formulae of chlorides of Eka-silicon and Eka-aluminium, the elements predicted by Mendeleev.
Q7. Three elements A, B, and C have 3, 4, and 2 electrons, respectively, in their outermost shell. Give the group number to which they belong in the Modern Periodic Table. Also, give their valencies.
Q8. If an element X is placed in group 14, what will be the formula and the nature of bonding of its chloride?
Q9. Compare the radii of two species, X and Y. Give reasons for your answer.
(a) X has 12 protons and 12 electrons
(b) Y has 12 protons and 10 electrons
Q10. Arrange the following elements in increasing order of their atomic radii.
(a) Li, Be, F, N
(b) CI, At, Br, I
Q11. Identify and name the metals from the following elements whose electronic configurations are given below.
(a) 2, 8, 2
(b) 2, 8, 1
(c) 2, 8,7
(d) 2, 1
Q12. Write the formula of the product formed when element A (atomic number 19) combines with element B (atomic number 17). Draw its electronic dot structure. What is the nature of the bond formed?
Q13. Arrange the following elements in the increasing order of their metallic character: Mg, Ca, K, Ge, Ga
Q14. Identify the elements with the following properties and arrange them in increasing order of their reactivity
(a) An element which is a soft and reactive metal
(b) The metal which is an important constituent of limestone
(c) The metal which exists in a liquid state at room temperature
Q15. The properties of the elements are given below. Where would you locate the following elements in the periodic table?
(a) A soft metal stored under kerosene.
(b) An element with variable (more than one) valency stored underwater.
(c) An element that is tetravalent and forms the basis of organic chemistry.
(d) An element that is an inert gas with atomic number 2.
(e) An element whose thin oxide layer is used to make other elements corrosion-resistant by anodizing.

Long Questions

Q1. An element is placed in the 2nd Group and 3rd Period of the Periodic Table. It burns in the presence of oxygen to form a basic oxide.
(a) Identify the element
(b) Write the electronic configuration
(c) Write the balanced equation when it burns in the presence of air
(d) Write a balanced equation when this oxide is dissolved in water
(e) Draw the electron dot structure for the formation of this oxide
Q2. An element X (atomic number 17) reacts with an element Y (atomic number 20) to form a divalent halide.
(a) Where in the periodic table are elements X and Y placed?
(b) Classify X and Y as metal (s), non-metal (s), or metalloid (s).
(c) What will be the nature of the oxide of element Y? Identify the nature of bonding in the compound formed.
(d) Draw the electron dot structure of the divalent halide.
Q3. The atomic numbers of a few elements are given below
10, 20, 7, 14
(a) Identify the elements
(b) Identify the Group number of these elements in the Periodic Table
(c) Identify the Periods of these elements in the Periodic Table
(d) What would be the electronic configuration for each of these elements?
(e) Determine the valency of these elements
Q4. Complete the following crossword puzzle (Figure 5.1)
(1) An element with atomic number 12.
(3) Metal used in making cans and members of Group 14.
(4) A lustrous non-metal with 7 electrons in its outermost shell.
(2) Highly reactive and soft metal which imparts yellow color when subjected to flame and is kept in kerosene.
(5) The first element of the second Period
(6) An element that is used in making fluorescent bulbs and is the second member of Group 18 in the Modem Periodic Table
(7) A radioactive element that is the last member of the halogen family.
(8) Metal is an important constituent of steel and forms rust when exposed to moist air.
(9) The first metalloid in Modem Periodic Table whose fibers are used to make bullet-proof vests
Q5. (a) In this ladder (Figure 5.2), symbols of elements are jumbled up. Rearrange these symbols of elements in the increasing order of their atomic number in the Periodic Table.
(b) Arrange them in the order of their group also.
Q6. Mendeleev predicted the existence of certain elements not known at that time and named two of them Eka-silicon and Eka-aluminium.
(a) Name the elements which have taken the place of these elements.
(b) Mention the group and the period of these elements in the Modern Periodic Table.
(c) Classify these elements as metals, non-metals or metalloids
Q7. a) The electropositive nature of the element(s) increases down the group and decreases across the period.
(b) Electronegativity of the element decreases down the group and increases across the period.
(c) Atomic size increases down the group and decreases across a period (left to right).
(d) Metallic character increases down the group and decreases across a period.
Based on the above trends of the Periodic Table, answer the following about the elements with atomic numbers 3 to 9.
(a) Name the most electropositive element among them.
(b) Name the most electronegative element among them.
(c) Name the element with the smallest atomic size
(d) Name the element which is a metalloid
(e) Name the element that shows maximum valency.
Q8. An element X, a yellow solid at room temperature, shows catenation and allotropy. X forms two oxides formed during the thermal decomposition of ferrous sulfate crystals and are the major air pollutants.
(a) Identify the element X
(b) Write the electronic configuration of X
(c) Write the balanced chemical equation for the thermal decomposition of ferrous sulfate crystals?
(d) What would be the nature (acidic/ basic) of oxides formed?
(e) Locate the position of the element in the Modem Periodic Table.
Q9. An element X of group 15 exists as a diatomic molecule and combines with hydrogen at 773 K in the presence of the catalyst to form a compound, ammonia, which has a characteristic pungent smell.
(a) Identify the element X. How many valence electrons does it have?
(b) Draw the electron dot structure of the diatomic molecule of X. What type of bond is formed in it?
(c) Draw the electron dot structure for ammonia, and what type of bond is formed in it?
Q10. Which group of elements could be placed in Mendeleev’s Table without disturbing the original order? Give reason.
Q11. Give an account of the process adopted by Mendeleev for the classification of elements. How did he arrive at Periodic Law?

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